AMPHIBIAWEB
Phrynobatrachus francisci
family: Phrynobatrachidae
 
Species Description: Rodel 2000 Herpetofauna Afr 1:165
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Summary

Members of this genus are identified by the presence of a midtarsal tubercle, elongate inner metatarsal tubercle, and metatarsal tubercle. Chevron shaped glands are clearly present on the dorsum.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Etymology

This species was named for Sir A.C. Francis, who collected a single specimen from the Zaria Province of Northern Nigeria, which was used to describe the species.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

This species occurs in the Guinea savanna zones of West Africa, from Senegal and Gambia, east to Nigeria. There are records from Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. It has not been recorded from Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mauritania and Niger, but it almost certainly occurs in these countries (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

The following is from the original description by Boulenger (1912):

Tongue with a conical papilla in the middle. Habit ranoid. Hearl monderate; snout short, rounded, projecting, without canthus; interorbital space as broad as the upper eyelid; tympanum feebly distinct, about half the diameter of the eye. First finge r not extending quite so far as second; toes two-thirds webbed; tips of fingers and toes obtusely pointed; subarticular tubercles small; two small, rounded metatarsal tubercles and a small conical tubercle in the middle of the tarsus. Tibia-tarsal articulation reaching the end of the snout; tibia half the length of head and body. Head and back with small smooth warts and short glandular ridges, limbs and lower parts smooth. Brown above, with a dark brown band between the eyes, two pairs of large dark brown spots on the back, separated by an interrupted yellow vertebral line, and dark cross-bars on the limbs; white beneath.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

The holotype measured 15 mm from snout to vent (Boulenger, 1912).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

It is a species of humid and dry savanna, also living in altered habitats, such as agricultural areas and villages. It breeds in a variety of temporary water habitats, including small temporary ponds and puddles, and ditches in villages (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Population Biology

It is a very common species (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Phylogenetics

Mitochodrial sequence data from 12S rRNA, valine-tRNA, and 16S rRNA fragment, as well as combined sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear (RAG-1) genes indicate that P. bullans is the sister species of P. francisci (Zimkus, 2010). These two species are in turn sister taxa to the clade containing P. acridoides and P. pakenhami.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

The IUCN Red List (2010) categorizes this species as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Trends

Populations of this species are stable (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Threats

It is an adaptable species that is not facing any significant threats (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Conservation Actions and Management

It occurs in many protected areas (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Uses

In Burkino Faso, P. francisci is one of many frog species that are traded or consumed as a source of animal protein. Because villagers are employed to catch and prepare frogs, and because they are an "important international trading item" frogs are an integral part of the economy in areas with large frog populations. Aside from their value as an essential food source, frogs and, more commonly, toads may also be used for cultural reasons and as traditional medicine in areas where Western medicine is not available (Mohneke, 2010)


Author: Manalel, Jasmine
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/