This species is endemic to Jamaica, where it is widespread throughout the country, except in the southern parts. Using its range as a proxy, the extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 8,600 km2. It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,500 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits all woods, parkland, montane forests, rural gardens, plantations and small-scale farms, usually associated with bromeliads, which are used for retreat and calling sites. It is mainly arboreal. It can tolerate some degree of habitat disturbance, insofar as there are surfaces that can hold small bodies of water and trap humidity (I. Holmes and S. Koenig pers. comm. March 2011). It lays its eggs in bromeliads and the tadpoles also develop there.
It is a common species with a stable population. It is not considered to be severely fragmented.
Deforestation due to selective logging, small-holder agriculture, human settlement, tourist development, and bauxite mining are localized threats. Suitable secondary forest habitats are starting to develop at mid-elevations in Jamaica, due to abandonment of farms, and so in some places it might be increasing. It is mainly in the coastal areas that habitats are being affected the worst at present.
Its range includes a protected area and several forest reserves, although management could be improved to address illegal logging (I. Holmes and S. Koenig pers. comm. March 2011). The Amphibian Ark Conservation Needs Assessment process identified this species as a candidate for ex situ research and conservation education.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern since, although its extent of occurrence is 8,600 km2, it is common and reasonably adaptable with a presumed large population.
Lavilla et al. (2010) determined that the species formerly referred to as Osteopilus brunneus is in fact Osteopilus ocellatus, making O. brunneus a junior synomym of O. ocellatus.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Osteopilus ocellatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T55806A3031952. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T55806A3031952.en .Downloaded on 16 January 2019