This species is currently known from 160-1,627m asl in much of central Viet Nam (Inger et al. 1999, Bain et al. 2003, Bain and Stuart 2006, Bain et al. 2007, Nguyen et al. 2009, Tran et al. 2010, J. Rowley unpubl. data), southern Laos (Teynié et al. 2004, Bain & Stuart 2006), and eastern Cambodia (Stuart et al. 2006). These may not represent the actual limits of the species' range; similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities extend into intervening parts of central Lao PDR. Further surveys in this area may uncover its presence, therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. This species' extent of occurrence (EOO) is 236,177 km2, which consists of six threat-defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is associated with lowland forest to montane cloud forest dominated by evergreen or bamboo and evergreen vegetation, and has mostly been observed adjacent to streams on rocks, leaf litter, herbaceous vegetation or up to 4 m above the ground in trees (Inger et al. 1999, Bain et al. 2003, Teynié et al. 2004, Stuart et al. 2006, Bain et al. 2007, J. Rowley unpubl. data). In Viet Nam males have been observed with nuptial pads in May and amplexus has been recorded during March (J. Rowley unpubl. data). Much of the species' reproductive biology is unknown, however it presumably breeds in streams and has a free-living larval stage, as with other Odorrana for which the reproductive strategy is known. A number of observations of the species have been within disturbed habitat (Teynié et al. 2004, J. Rowley unpubl. data).
Little is known about the size and trends of this species' population except that is has been detected in a number of surveys (e.g. Inger et al. 1999, Bain et al. 2003, Teynié et al. 2004, Bain and Stuart 2006, Stuart et al. 2006, Bain et al. 2007, Nguyen et al. 2009, Tran et al. 2010, J. Rowley unpubl. data). It has been described as relatively abundant in central Viet Nam (J. Rowley pers. comm. December 2015), however it is difficult to identify in the field and often confused with its very morphologically similar, sympatric congener O. banaorum (J. Rowley pers. comm. March 2012). Harvesting for food as well as habitat loss associated with expanding agriculture, logging, and human encroachment in this species' range (Ohler et al. 2002, Teynié et al. 2004, Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Bradfield and Daltry 2009, Sodhi et al. 2009, Meyfroidt et al. 2013, J. Rowley unpubl. data) may be causing population declines.
Habitat loss and degradation due to rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009). In the Central Highlands of Viet Nam large areas of forest are converted to agricultural land to grow cash crop plantations (e.g. rubber, coffee and tea) (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Meyfroidt et al. 2013). High rates of deforestation for logging, and agricultural encroachment on natural forest are also ongoing in much of Laos and Cambodia (Sodhi et al. 2009). Shifting agriculture is widely used across parts of the species' range in southern Laos to grow coffee, banana, durian, cabbage, potato, maize, tomato and other crops (Teynié et al. 2004). Other causes of habitat loss in Cambodia are the illegal removal of certain tree species for the harvest and refinement of safrole oil, as well as increasing human settlement, both of which are ongoing within protected areas (Ohler et al. 2002, Bradfield and Daltry 2009). This species is very likely threatened to some degree by habitat loss. It is also possible that high harvest rates of the species for human consumption (and preference for harvesting the larger females) may affect its population (J. Rowley pers. comm. December 2015).
This species is relatively well represented in protected areas throughout its range: it is known from Nui Ong and Ngoc Linh Nature reserves, and Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park in Viet Nam; Dong Hua Sao and Xe Sap National Biodiversity Conservation Areas in Lao PDR; and Virachey National Park and Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area in Cambodia (Bain and Stuart 2006, Stuart et al. 2006, J. Rowley unpubl. data). Its predicted range includes a large number of other protected areas; it very likely occurs in some of these also.
In order to ensure the species' long-term survival, the lack of data must be addressed; research should be carried out to determine its relative abundance, life history, and impact of harvesting and other threats.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is relatively widespread, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 236,177 km2.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2016. Odorrana morafkai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T58673A64131896. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T58673A64131896.en .Downloaded on 13 December 2018