This species is known from a few localities in Borneo: in south-central Sarawak (Malaysia), around Betung Kerihun National Park (West Kalimantan), Sungai Benturak, Gunung Bondang (Central Kalimantan), and Loksado (South Kalimantan) in Kalimantan (Indonesia), and in Brunei Darussalam. It is now also known from Santabong, Kubah National Park, Gunung Gading National Park and Gunung Penrissen National Park (Y.M. Pui unpubl. data March 2018). It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. It has an altitudinal range of 150–300 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This species lives in leaf-litter on the floor of closed-canopy forests. It will not tolerate habitat disturbance (Y.M. Pui pers. comm. March 2018). Breeding almost certainly occurs in small rain pools.
This species is rarely found. Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The principal threat to the species is rapid clear-cutting of lowland tropical rainforest in forest concession land and for oil palm plantations (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). In Sarawak, the lowland forest range of this species outside of protected areas is threatened by both logging concessions, small scale subsistence logging and oil palm plantations (I. Das and Y.M. Pui pers. comm. March 2018).
This species occurs in Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary, Kubah, Gunung Gading, and Gunung Penrissen National Parks (Sarawak), Betung Kerihun National Park (Kalimantan), and Ulu Temburong National Park (Brunei). In Sarawak, more than 50% of the subpopulation is believed to occur in protected areas (Y.M. Pui pers. comm. March 2018).
Effective preservation of lowland forest is needed to conserve this species because oil palm plantations are encroaching into protected areas. Some oil palm companies and forestry companies designate High Conservation Value areas, which is required by some financial institutions providing loans. However, not all lenders require these areas to be set aside and the habitat within the HCVs could disappear if the lender or requirements change (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).
Further research on this species' distribution, population size and trends is recommended. Taxonomic work is required to be done on the whole genus to provide improved information for the reliable identification of these species (I. Das pers. comm. March 2018).
Red List Status
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Kalophrynus intermedius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T57838A114919191. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T57838A114919191.en .Downloaded on 15 November 2018