Incilius perplexus
family: Bufonidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Mexico



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is found in the Tepalcatepec Basin and surrounding areas in south-western Michoacán, south of the Balsas River in Guerrero, Mexico. It probably occurs more widely than currently known.

Habitat and Ecology

It inhabits the Pacific lowlands in areas of seasonal tropical forest, and lives under rocks and logs close to streams, breeding in pools.


This is a rare species.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The main threats to this species are infrastructure development and agricultural expansion, coupled with changes in the management of agricultural habitat.

Conservation Actions

It is not found within any protected area, and protection of the species' original forest habitat is urgently needed.

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Guerrero, Mexico.


Georgina Santos-Barrera, Luis Canseco-Márquez 2004. Incilius perplexus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54731A11196439. .Downloaded on 18 February 2019


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