This species occurs from the Central Mexican Plateau, to the west in northern Colima and north-central Sinaloa, including northwestern, central and eastern Michoacán, central and southern Jalisco, northwestern Guerrero and Oaxaca, and from central Mexico to the east into south-central Puebla, Tlaxcala and Veracruz, Mexico. It can be found between 610-2,400 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This species lives in a wide variety of habitats, from lowland xeric scrubs and deciduous forest to coniferous and oak forests. It is also recorded in disturbed environments. It breeds in streams.
This is one of the most common toads in Mexico, maintaining healthy populations along its range.
Desiccation, alteration and pollution of rivers and smaller streams are the main threats to this species, as it requires the presence of permanent, clean, shallow water.
The preservation of natural ecosystems including the river systems can guarantee the survival of this species. It occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
This form is a complex of more than one species.
Georgina Santos-Barrera, Oscar Flores-Villela, Paulino Ponce-Campos 2010. Incilius occidentalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54719A11192351. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T54719A11192351.en .Downloaded on 14 December 2018