© 2017 Twan Leenders (1 of 31)
The head is rounded when viewed from above. Skin is co-ossified to the skull. Well-developed black-tipped cranial crests are present. Parotoid glands are very small and oval in shape. Tympanum height is about 1/2 the eye diameter. Finger I is longer than finger II. Toes are partly webbed. Inner metatarsal tubercle is raised and elongated; outer metatarsal tubercle is elongated. Adult males have paired vocal slits, and a single internal subgular vocal sac that distends during calls. Dorsal surfaces of body and limbs are warty, with none to few lateral warts enlarged. Venter is finely granular. Adult males have a black nuptial pad on the upper and medial surfaces of Fingers I and II, extending onto outer edge of thenar tubercle (Savage 2002).
Adult males, and some adult females, are a uniform pale yellow brown to yellow green color. Males have a dirty yellowish green throat. The majority of females are dark brown, olive green, or rusty brown, and have a broad yellow middorsal stripe along with a broad dark lateral stripe; sometimes light dorsolateral stripes are also present in females. Juveniles and some females have black spots in a linear pattern and often chevron-shaped markings on the shoulder. Both juveniles and females (if patterned) also have dark transverse bars on the upper surface of the limbs, but limb barring is absent in adult males. The venter is dirty yellow (Savage 2002).
Tadpoles are moderately sized, reaching a total length of 29 mm. The body is ovoid in shape with a rounded tail tip. Nostrils are dorsal and eyes are dorsolateral. The spiracle is sinistral and lateral while the vent tube is medial. The mouth is anteroventral and directed ventrally. The oral disc is small and emarginate with a broad gap in the A2 denticle row above the mouth, and a single row of labial papillae on either side of the mouth. Coloration is black dorsally and gray ventrally, with black caudal musculature and the upper fin mottled with the lower fin having scattered dark dots (Savage 2002).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Karyotype is 2N=22, with six pairs of large chromosomes and five pairs of small chromosomes, all metacentric or submetacentric. Chromosome 1 has a secondary constriction (Bogart 1972).
A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).
Bogart, J. P. (1972). ''Karyotypes.'' Evolution in the Genus Bufo. W. F. Blair, eds., University of Texas Press, Austin.
Bolaños, F., Wilson, L.D., Savage, J., and Flores-Villela, O., 2004. Incilius luetkenii. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 21 July 2009.
Boulenger, G. A. (1891). ''Notes on American batrachians.'' Annals of the Magazine of Natural History, series 6, 8(48), 453-457.
Haas, W., and Köhler, G. (1997). ''Freilandbeobachtungen, Plege un Zacht von Bufo luetkenii Boulenger, 1891.'' Herpetofauna, 19(109), 5-9.
Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Written by Lettie Gallup (lettiegallup AT gmail.com), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2009-07-15
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2009-11-02)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2009 Incilius luetkenii <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/224> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 15, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 15 Dec 2018.
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