Ichthyophis billitonensis
family: Ichthyophiidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Indonesia



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known only from Belitung Island, Indonesia.

Habitat and Ecology

This species is presumed to occur in tropical moist forest, where the adults are likely to be subterranean, and it is also presumably oviparous with terrestrial eggs and aquatic larvae.


It is known only from the holotype, and there have been no recent records, presumably due to a lack of herpetological work within its range.

Population Trend


Major Threats

There has been severe habitat conversion on Belitung Island due to oil palm plantations and opencast tin mining, although it is not known to what extent this is threatening this species. The only remaining forested habitat is on Mt. Tajam (A. Hamidy pers. comm. May 2017).

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It does not occur in any protected area.

Research Needed
Further studies are needed to determine whether or not or not it is a valid species (D. Iskandar pers. comm.), along with studies on its population size, distribution, ecology, and threats.

Red List Status

Data Deficient (DD)


Listed as Data Deficient in view of continuing doubts as to its taxonomic validity as well as absence of recent information on its extent of occurrence, status and ecological requirements.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Ichthyophis billitonensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T59613A95758438. .Downloaded on 23 February 2019


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