São Paulo Tree Toad
Tadpoles have an elliptical body in dorsal and oval in lateral view. There is a depression anteriorly to the intestines. Eyes dorsally positioned. Nares rounded. Spiracle tube sinistral, posterodorsally directed, centripetal wall present as a slight ridge. Vent tube short, dextral, fused to the ventral fin. The tail is slightly higher than body and about 60% of the total length of the tadpole. Intestine rolled transversally to the longitudinal axis of the body. Tail musculature high at the anterior third. Tadpoles have convex, slightly ridged, wide dorsal fins that are slightly higher than the body and originate just before body-tail junction and becomes progressively shorter toward the tail tip. The oral apparatus is located ventrally with, emarginated laterally and ventrally, surrounded by one row of marginal papillae, alternated, and forming a laterally and ventrally double row, with a dorsal gap. Submarginal papillae anteriorly. Labial tooth row formula (LTRF) 2(2)/3(1). Lower jaw sheath is V-shaped while the upper jaw sheath is M-shaped. Both jaws are strongly keratinized, but it is common to find tadpoles without keratinized mouth structures in their later developmental stages (Gomes et al. 2012)
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Tadpoles of H. magalhaesi inhabit first order streams in primary forests. Tadpoles occur year round at different developmental stages. Reaching metamorphosis can take more than a year with froglets are observed between January and March (Gomes et al. 2012).
The advertisement call of H. magalhaesi has a dominant frequency between 1400 and 3000 c/s. Call duration is 1 s (Bokermann 1964).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Bokermann, W. C. A. (1964). ''Una nueva especies de Elosia de la Serra de Mantiqueira, Brasil.'' Neotropica, 10, 102–107.
Canedo, C. (2008). ''Revisão taxonômica de Hylodes Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia, Hylodidae).''
Gomes, F.B.R.; Provete, D.B.; and Martins, I.A (2012). ''The tadpole of Hylodes magalhaesi (Bokermann, 1964) from southeastern Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).'' Journal of Herpetology , 46(4), 614-619.
Toledo, L. F., Haddad, C. F. B., Carnaval, A. C. O. Q., and Brito, F. B. (2006). ''A Brazilian anuran (Hylodes magalhaesi: Leptodactylidae) infected by Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis: a conservation concern.'' Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 4, 17.
Written by Diogo B. Provete (dbprovete AT gmail.com), Department of Ecology, Universidade Federal de Goiás
First submitted 2013-02-02
Edited by Ann T. Chang (2013-02-11)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2013 Hylodes magalhaesi: São Paulo Tree Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/3465> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 15, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 15 Dec 2018.
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