Hylodes amnicola is a member of the Hylodes lateristrigatus group (sensu Heyer 1982) . Dorsum pale brown to dark gray with interocular bar and dorsal blotches with variable shapes and contrast, sometimes not visible. One to three transverse bars on the thigh of variable widths. Coccygeal region blackish to gray and venter cream colored to white, also white with cream colored dots. More than one gray bar may be present on thigh. Usually a gray triangular blotch on head with its apex touching the interorbital bar. Head is longer than wide, males 25.3-28.1 mm SVL. Canthus rostralis distinct, slightly straight, loreal region concave. Tympanum visible beneath the skin, with a diameter half that of eye. Weak supratympanic fold present. Lateral fold extends from supratympanic fold to groin. Vocal sacs laterally placed. Relative lengths of fingers 2<1=4<3, toes 1<2<5<3<4 (Pombal et al. 2002) .
Tadpoles were collected at the type locality, this description is based on a tadpole at Gosner (1960) stage 28: Total length is 54 mm, body length 19.1 mm, body height 9.3 mm, body width 12.5 mm. Body oval in dorsal ventral and lateral views. Eyes small and dorsolateral. Labial tooth row formula is 2(2)/3(1). In preservative the dorsum and sides are a dark bwnish gray while ventral surface is a silver brown whose anterior region is silver cream. Edge of spiracle (sinistral situated at midbody with opening directed posterodorsally) is white. Fins cream and translucent with dark brown irregular blotches and a black iris.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil
Known only from the type locality at the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca near 1400 m altitude. The habitat at this locality was that of rocky mountain fields called "campo rupestre" with small bushes and grasses on a sandy soil and quartzite. Rich acides from the soil give the water a dark color; rocky bottom present in streams.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Pombal, Jr. et al. (2002) provide the following information on vocalization (at 18 celcius): advertisement calls given sporadically, call duration is 2.82-3.75 sec, 48-65 notes/call, rate of 16.96-18.63/sec, notes given at intervals of .026-.040 sec (final interval may be of approximately .05 sec), note duration is .015-.034 sec. Each note is a rising frequency-modulated whistle with a dominant frequency range of 5.1-6.2 kHz. Territorial calls have 6-8 notes, formed by 6-8 whistles or 5-7 whistles plus a squeaky note. Calls of just whistles had durations ranging .45-.74 sec. Calls with whistles and squeaky notes had a duration of .74-.92 sec. Whistle notes of territorial calls ranged from .02-.04 sec. Squaky notes had a range from .22-.25. Males were seen calling throughout the year during the day including dusk, calling from the ground, along rocks, edges of rivulents, inside forests, and open areas.
Gosner, K. L. (1960). ''A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification.'' Herpetologica, 16(3), 183-190.
Heyer, W. R. (1982). ''Two new species of the frog genus Hylodes from the Caparao, minas Gerais, Brasil (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).'' Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 95, 377-385.
Pombal Jr., J. P., Feio, R. N., and Haddad, C. F. B. (2002). ''A new species of torrent frog genus Hylodes from southeastern Brazil.'' Herpetologica, 58(4), 462-471.
Written by Raul E. Diaz (lissamphibia AT gmail.com), AWeb guy
First submitted 2004-06-04
Edited by Tate Tunstall (2004-08-18)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2004 Hylodes amnicola <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/6034> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 14, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 14 Dec 2018.
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