This species is widely distributed in western Jamaica from sea level to 635 m asl. Its range, taken as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 6,293 km2. It is known from eight threat-defined locations, but it is likely to be more widespread (I. Holmes pers. comm. December 2012), and additional surveys in less sampled areas could reveal new records.
Habitat and Ecology
It is found in association with rocks and it is closely associated with limestone karst and/or caves and requires closed-canopy moist forest. It breeds by direct development and eggs are laid on the ground. This species exhibits extensive maternal care (Diesel et al. 1995). It does not occur in open habitats, but it can tolerate moderate disturbance insofar as there is a majority closed canopy (I. Holmes and S. Koenig pers. comms. March 2011).
It is more abundant than many other species of Eleutherodactylus on Jamaica and is moderately common. As long as there is a good underground retreat and a closed canopy forest, it is likely to occur in suitable areas; it is not considered to have a severely fragmented population (I. Holmes pers. comm. March 2011). Although it is considered to be a common species, it is suspected to be decreasing in some sites given the effects of bauxite mining and limestone quarrying in suitable underground habitats (S. Koenig pers. comm. March 2011). It was seen in March 2011 (S. Koenig pers. comm. March 2011).
The main threat is habitat degradation and loss due to bauxite mining and limestone quarrying, and to a lesser degree, it is also impacted by small-holder agriculture (yam, bananas), human settlements, tourism development (especially cave eco-tourism; I. Holmes pers. comm. March 2011; S. Koenig pers. comm. March 2011), and clear-cut logging (I. Holmes pers. comm. March 2011). Bauxite mining activity is likely to increase throughout the rest of this species' range in the future (S. Koenig pers. comm. March 2011).
It occurs in several forest reserves; although management has improved over the last five years, bauxite mining continues to be a major threat factor to this species (S. Koenig pers. comm. March 2011). Additional habitat protection is needed as is restoration of natural habitats impacted by mining activities. Population monitoring is needed to assess suspected population declines.
The Amphibian Ark conservation needs assessment identifies potential for ex situ research into developing husbandry protocols for more threatened species and can also be used for conservation education due to reproductive behaviour.
Red List Status
Near Threatened (NT)
Listed as Near Threatened given that its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 6,293 km2, it is currently known from eight threat-defined locations but is likely to occur in more locations, possibly greater than ten, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat in Jamaica and there is a suspected decline in the number of mature individuals. The species almost qualifies for a threatened listing under criterion B1ab(iii).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2013. Eleutherodactylus cundalli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T56543A3042373. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T56543A3042373.en .Downloaded on 16 December 2018