Species Description: Pombal J, Gasparini 2006 A new Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Atlantic rainforest of Espitrito Santo, Southeastern Brazil.South American Journal of Herpetology. 1 (2): 87-93.
Brachycephalus alipioi can be distinguished from other species in the same genus by the combination of one or more of these characteristics: uniform orange color, larger size, rounded bufoniform body, absence of two bony shields on the dorsum, presences of a small pair of postorbital crests, reduced (but present) fourth finger, absence of dermal ossification dorsal to the vertebrae, and absence of developed warts in dorsum. It is further characterized by the absence of a fifth toe, completely ossified pectoral girdle, epicoracoids are contacting closely and articulating throughout their lengths, omosternum and sternum are absent (Pombal and Gasparini 2006).
In life, the body is a uniform orange color. The eye and a thin line surround the eye are black. In preservative the specimen becomes uniformly cream yellowish on the dorsum and lighter on the undersurfaces. The eyes stay black, but the thin black line around eye is interrupted at the upper eyelids, and small brownish dots appear on the head (Pombal and Gasparini 2006).
Females are more robust and larger than males. Smaller individuals have less developed postorbital crests and bulges (Pombal and Gasparini 2006).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Brachycephalus alipioi is a member of the New World frog family Brachycephalidae. The phylogeny of the genus, which has 14 recognized species, is unresolved. A species tree obtained by Clemente-Carvalho et al. in 2011 described three lineages of Brachycephalus; one containing B. ephippium and B. garbeana, another containing B. brunneus, B. izecksohni, B. pombali, B. ferruginus, and B. pernix, and another lineage containing B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, B. alipioi, B. pitanga, B. vertabralis, B. nodoterga, and B. toby. There is some disagreement in their analysis on the placement of B. hermgenesi and Clemente-Carvalho et al. found that further sampling will be necessary to determine the phylogenetic relationships within Brachycephalus with certainty.
The name, Brachycephalus alipioi, honors Alipio de Miranda-Ribeiro (1874-1939), who was a highly esteemed Brazilian naturalist in his time. He worked at the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro, published extensively on vertebrates, especially in ichthyology and herpetology (Pombal and Gasparini 2006).
The holotype was collected at “Fazenda Aoki or Fazenda dos Japoneses”, approximately 915 meters above sea level in the municipality of Vargem Alta, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil on November 15, 2000 by J.P. Pombal Jr., J.L. Gaspirini, R. Fernandes, and G.M. Prado.
Angulo, A. 2008. Brachycephalus alipioi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 17 July 2013.
Clemente-Carvalho, R.B.G., Klaczko, J., Perez, S.I., Alves, Ana C.R., Haddad, C.F.B., and dos Reis, S.F. (2011). ''Molecular phylogenetic relationships and phenotypic diversity in miniaturized toadlets, genus Brachycephalus (Amphibia: Anura: Brachycephalidae).'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61(1), 79-89.
Pombal Jr., J.P., Gasparini, J.L. (2006). ''A New Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) From The Atlantic Rainforst of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil.'' South American Journal of Herpetology, 1(2), 87-93.
Written by Laura Sherwin (LauraSherwin AT utexas.edu), University of Texas at Austin
First submitted 2013-07-31
Edited by Ann T. Chang (2013-07-31)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2013 Brachycephalus alipioi <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/6807> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 9, 2018.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 9 Dec 2018.
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