© 2007 Twan Leenders (1 of 11)
Adults are 76 to 160 mm in total length. Adult males are 47 to 68 mm in standard length, while adult females are 46 to 81 mm in standard length. Tail length is moderate, ranging from 45% to 51% of total length. Eyes are also moderate and slightly protuberant. Adults have 27 to 48 maxillary teeth, and 22 to 40 vomerine teeth. In males, there are 2 to 3 1/2 costal folds between adpressed limbs, while in females, there are 2 1/2 to 4 costal folds. Hands and feet are fully webbed. Webs are thick and digits are not very flattened. No subterminal pads are present. Head width is 14 to 18% of standard length. In adult males, leg length is 22 to 26% of standard length, and in females, leg length is 21 to 24% (Brame and Wake 1963).
Color is variable. Flanks and venter are dark chocolate and usually sharply separated from the broad dorsal cream to tan field. Dorsal field is unmarked in juveniles but in adults, it usually has dark brown streaks or washes. Some adults are uniform dark brown or have only a few streaks of light color. Venter is a uniform dark brown in juveniles; in adults the venter is usually marked with large light spots (Savage 2002).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Costa Rica, Panama
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).
Koehler, G., Sunyer, J., Ponce, M., and Batista, A. (2008). ''Noteworthy records of amphibians and reptiles in Panama (Amphibia: Plethodontidae, Craugastoridae, Hylidae; Reptilia: Polychrotidae).'' Senckenbergiana Biologica, 88, 329-333.
Brame, A. H., and Wake, D. B. (1963). ''Redescription of the plethodontid salamander Bolitoglossa lignicolor (Peters), with remarks on the status of B. palustris Taylor.'' Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 76, 289-296.
Ibañez, R., Solís, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. (2000). ''An overview of the herpetology of Panama.'' Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. Johnson, J. D., Webb, R. G. and Flores-Villela, O. A., eds., The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, 159-170.
Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica:a herpetofauna between two continents, between two seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA and London.
Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Written by David Chen (davidchen AT berkeley.edu), University of California, Berkeley
First submitted 2009-11-02
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2010-04-19)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2010 Bolitoglossa lignicolor <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/3984> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 20, 2019.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2019. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 20 Mar 2019.
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