Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842
© 2009 Pierre Fidenci (1 of 18)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China
Previous populations in Korea, Japan, the Russian Far East (northwards to the Amur River valley, as well as some islands, including Sakhalin) and East Siberia (Transbaikalia) have been distinguishable into other closely related species (see Othman et al 2022).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Reproduction occurs in lakes, ponds, swamps, puddles, old riverbeds, ditches and rivulets with stagnant or semi-flowing water. Males enter breeding areas before females. Amplexus is pectoral.
The clutch in the form of two strings of eggs, 1.5-2.3 m in length, containing 1200-7400 eggs. Metamorphosis occurs in summer. Mass mortality of B. gargarizans larvae occurs in pools with high tadpole density of the brown frog Rana dybowskii.
Sexual maturity of this toad is probably attained during the 3rd-4th year of life; the majority of adults are 5-6 years old.
Adult B. gargarizans consume insects, especially Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Other invertebrates such as Mollusca, Myriapoda and Arachnoidea are eaten in smaller quantities.
Trends and Threats
Some peripheral populations, especially at the northern margin of the range (North China, probably Transbaikalia), are small and isolated, and they may be vulnerable to the alteration of habitats.
Relation to Humans
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Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
Othman SN, Litvinchuk SN, Maslova I, Dahn H, Messenger KR, Andersen D, Jowers MJ, Kojima Y, Skorinov DV, Yasumiba K, Chuang M-F, Chen Y-H, Bae Y, Hoti J, Jang Y, Borzee A. (2022). "From Gondwana to the Yellow Sea, evolutionary diversifications of true toads Bufo sp. in the Eastern Palearctic and a revisit of species boundaries for Asian lineages." eLife, 11(e70494.). [link]
Stejneger, L. H. (1907). Herpetology of Japan and Adjacent Territory, United States National Museum Bulletin 58. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C..
Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
Originally submitted by: Sergius L. Kuzmin (first posted 1999-09-30)
Edited by: Kellie Whittaker, Michelle S. Koo (2022-09-08)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Bufo gargarizans: Asiatic Toad <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/179> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 2, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 2 Jun 2023.
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