AMPHIBIAWEB

Megophryidae

265 species in 12 genera

Commonly Called Asian Horned Frogs, Asian Toads, Asian Toadfrogs, Leaf Litter Frogs


Megophrys (Xenophrys) major
Photo by Nikolai Orlov
(Click for family gallery)

These are the largest, most ecologically and morphologically diverse group of non-neobatrachian frogs in South and Southeast Asia, extending through India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, Borneo, Philippines, and Sunda Islands. The Megophryidae are generally cryptic frogs, often mimicking dead leaves on the forest floor. For example, Megophrys nasuta, when viewed dorsally, resembles a leaf with its coloration, overall shape, and even leaf-vein looking epidermal growths! These frogs are nocturnal and are poor jumpers, instead preferring to walk around. Tadpoles are aquatic and vary widely in natural history with many buccal adaptations. Megophryids have highly glandular skin with concentrations of glands in the axilla, pectoral and femoral areas.

Notably in 2018, Mahony et al. compiled and analyzed a molecular, morphological, and timetree dated phylogeny for the subfamily Megophryninae, in which they proposed it is comprised of the single genus Megophrys with support for seven subgenera: Megophrys, Atympanophrys, Brachytarsophrys, Ophryophryne, Panophrys, Pelobatrachus, and Xenophrys.

Written by AmphibiaWeb

Notable Family Characteristics

  • Inhabits forest floors or streamsides
  • Terrestrial
  • Nocturnal
  • Eggs are deposited in water to hatch into aquatic tadpoles
  • Morphological characters for this family are: 1) ceratohyals absent in adults; 2) intervertebral cartilages with ossified centers; 3) paddle-shaped tongue; 4) pectoral girdle arciferal with long bony sternum; 5) sacral diapophyses expanded antero-posteriorly; 6) palatines absent, with a palatal process of maxilla instead present in this area. Other features include highly glandular skin with concentrations of glands in the axilla, pectoral and femoral areas
  • Distribution limited to South and Southeast Asia, extending through India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, Borneo, Philippines, and Sunda Islands.

Relevant Reference

Chen et al 2018 Large-scale phylogenetic analyses provide insights into unrecognized diversity and historical biogeography of Asian leaf-litter frogs, genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 124: 162-171.

Mahony, S, R G. Kamei, E C. Teeling, and S. D. Biju. 2018. Cryptic diversity within the Megophrys major species group (Amphibia: Megophryidae) of the Asian Horned Frogs: Phylogenetic perspectives and a taxonomic revision of South Asian taxa, with descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa, 4523.1 (2018): 1–96

Mahony, S., N. M. Foley, S. D. Biju, and E. C. Teeling. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Asian Horned Frogs (Megophryinae): Integrative approaches to timetree dating in the absence of a fossil record. Molecular Biology and Evolution 34: 744-771.

Pough, F. H., R. M. Andrews, M. L. Crump, A. H. Savitzky, K. D. Wells, and M. C. Brandley. 2015. Herpetology. Fourth Edition. Massachusetts: Sinauer.

Vitt, L. J., and J. P. Caldwell. 2013. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Fourth Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Subfamily Leptobrachiinae (157 species)

Genus Leptobrachella (76 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Leptobrachella alpina no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella applebyi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella arayai no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella ardens no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella baluensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bidoupensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bijie no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bondangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella botsfordi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella bourreti no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella brevicrus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella chishuiensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella crocea no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella dringi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella feii no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella firthi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella flaviglandulosa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella fritinniens no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella fuliginosa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella fusca no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella gracilis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella hamidi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella heteropus no AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Leptobrachella juliandringi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella kajangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella kalonensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella kecil no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella khasiorum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella lateralis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella laui no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella liui no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella macrops no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella maculosa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella marmorata no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella maura no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella melanoleuca no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella melica no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella mjobergi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella nahangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella namdongensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella natunae no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella niveimontis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella oshanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pallida AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella palmata no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella parva no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pelodytoides no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella petrops no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella picta no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella platycephala no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pluvialis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella purpura no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella purpuraventra no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella pyrrhops no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella rowleyae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella sabahmontana no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella serasanae AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella shangsiensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella sola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella suiyangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella sungi AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella tadungensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella tamdil no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella tengchongensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Leptobrachella tuberosa no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella ventripunctata no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella wuhuangmontis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella wulingensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella yingjiangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella yunkaiensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella zhangyapingi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) aerea no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) eos no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) maoershanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) minima no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachella (Lalos) nyx no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Leptobrachium (37 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Leptobrachium abbotti AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium ailaonicum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium banae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium bompu AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium boringii no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium buchardi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium chapaense no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium guangxiense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium gunungense no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium hainanense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium hasseltii AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium hendricksoni AmphibiaWeb account photos sound/video
Leptobrachium huashen no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium ingeri no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium kanowitense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium kantonishikawai no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium leishanense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium leucops no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium liui no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium lumadorum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium lunatum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium mangyanorum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium montanum AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium mouhoti no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium ngoclinhense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium nigrops no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium nokrekensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium promustache no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium pullum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium rakhinense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium smithi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium tagbanorum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium tenasserimense no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium tengchongense no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium waysepuntiense AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium xanthops no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Leptobrachium xanthospilum no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Leptolalax (1 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Leptolalax mangshanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Oreolalax (19 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Oreolalax chuanbeiensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax granulosus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax jingdongensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax liangbeiensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax lichuanensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax longmenmontis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax major AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreolalax multipunctatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax nanjiangensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax omeimontis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax pingii AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax popei AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax puxiongensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax rhodostigmatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax rugosus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax schmidti AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax sterlingae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Oreolalax weigoldi AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Oreolalax xiangchengensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Scutiger (24 species)    [subfamily Leptobrachiinae]
Scutiger adungensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger bhutanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger boulengeri no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Scutiger brevipes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger chintingensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger ghunsa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger glandulatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger gongshanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger jiulongensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger liupanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger maculatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger mammatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger muliensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger nepalensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger ningshanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger nyingchiensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger occidentalis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Scutiger pingwuensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger sikimmensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Scutiger spinosus no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Scutiger tengchongensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger tuberculatus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger wanglangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Scutiger wuguanfui no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Subfamily Megophryinae (108 species)

Genus Atympanophrys (3 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Atympanophrys gigantica no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Atympanophrys nankiangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Atympanophrys shapingensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Brachytarsophrys (7 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Brachytarsophrys carinense no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys chuannanensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys feae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys intermedia no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys orientalis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys platyparietus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Brachytarsophrys popei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Megophrys (6 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Megophrys dzukou no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Megophrys) lancip no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Megophrys) montana AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Megophrys) parallela no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Xenophrys) awuh no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Megophrys (Xenophrys) numhbumaeng no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Ophryophryne (6 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Ophryophryne elfina no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne gerti no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne hansi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne koui no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne microstoma no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Ophryophryne synoria no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Panophrys (47 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Panophrys acuta no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys angka no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys baolongensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys binchuanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys binlingensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys boettgeri no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys brachykolos no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys caobangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys caudoprocta no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys cheni no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys chishuiensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys daweimontis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys dongguanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys huangshanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys insularis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys jiangi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys jingdongensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys jinggangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys jiulianensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys kuatunensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys leishanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys liboensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys lini no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys lishuiensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys minor no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys mirabilis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys mufumontana no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys nankunensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys nanlingensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys obesa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys ombrophila no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys omeimontis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys palpebralespinosa no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys rubrimera no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys sangzhiensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys shimentaina no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys shuichengensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys shunhuangensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys spinata no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Panophrys tuberogranulatus AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wawuensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wugongensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wuliangshanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys wushanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys xiangnanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys xianjuensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Panophrys yangmingensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Pelobatrachus (7 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Pelobatrachus baluensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus edwardinae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus kalimantanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus kobayashii no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus ligayae AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus nasuta no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Pelobatrachus stejnegeri no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Xenophrys (32 species)    [subfamily Megophryinae]
Xenophrys aceras no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys ancrae no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys auralensis AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys awuh no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys damrei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys dringi no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys dzukou no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys fansipanensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys feii no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys flavipunctata no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys glandulosa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys himalayana no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys hoanglienensis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys lekaguli no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys longipes no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys major no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys mangshanensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys medogensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys megacephala no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys monticola no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys numhbumaeng no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys oreocrypta no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys oropedion no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys pachyproctus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys parva no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys periosa no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys robusta no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys serchhipii no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys takensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys vegrandis no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Xenophrys zhangi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Xenophrys zunhebotoensis no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: https://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed:

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