AMPHIBIAWEB
Vandijkophrynus amatolicus
Amatola Toad
family: Bufonidae

© 2004 Robert C. Drewes (1 of 2)

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: South Africa

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Critically Endangered (CR)
See IUCN account.
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Etymology

This species is named for the Amatola Mountains in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa where it was first discovered.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

V. amatolicus is restricted to a range in the Winterberg and Amatola mountains found in the Eastern Cape provice or South Africa (Boycott 1988d; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

The dorsum is usually uniform dark grey or olive-brown with a distinct, pale, vertebral stripe. Well developed parotoid glands and numerous small, flattened warts are present on the dorsal surface (Boycott 1988d; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

V. amatolicus is a small toad, with females reaching a maximum snout–vent length of 37 mm (Boycott 1988d; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Comparisons

Originally described as a subspecies of V. angusticeps, V. amatolicus is smaller and is lacking a fringe of webbing around the fingers and toes (Carruthers 1995; Channing 2001; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

This species is found mostly in moist grasslands at high-altitudes between 1400 and 1800m; it is absent from forests and plantation area adjacent to these habitats. It can be found under rocks and logs, and in forest clearings (Boycott 1988d; Minter et al., 2004).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

After heavy rains, the males congregate in large numbers at breeding sites, where they call from concealed positions under grass. The advertisement call is a brief nasal squawk, with long intervals between calls (Passmore and Carruthers 1995; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

Breeding takes place in shallow pools, and seeps on mountain slopes; between October to December. Eggs are deposited in shallow water as single strings. Several hundred eggs are contained in a single clutch; the eggs are hidden well as they are blended in with the vegetation or muddy substrates (Channing 2001; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Tadpole morphology

The tadpoles are brown in colour and benthic in habit (Boycott 1988d; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

V. amatolicus is listed as Endangered due to its isolation and fragmented environment (Boycott 1988d; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Threats

The habitat is threatened due to overgrazing. However, in the last 20 years it is estimated that 20% of its habitat has been lost due to silviculture (Boycott 1988d; Text from Minter et al., 2004, © SI/MAB Biodiversity Program).


Author: Boycott, R.C.
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/