Species Description: Brasileiro, Oyamaguchi & Haddad. 2007 A New Island Species of Scinax (Anura; Hylidae) from Southeastern Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 41(2): 271-275
They have slender arms, with forearms that are somewhat stout, but smaller than their hands. Their outer metacarpal tubercule is cordiform, the inner metacarpal tubercule is elliptical, and subarticular tubercules are single and rounded. They do not have webbed fingers. Their finger lengths in order from shortest to longest are I < II < IV < III. The length of their tibia is greater than that of their thigh, and the sum of their thigh and tibia is about the same as their snout vent length. Their feet are characterized by a round inner metatarsal tubercule, a divided outer metatarsal tubercule, and rounded single subarticular tubercules. Their toe lengths from shortest to longest are I < II < V < III < IV. The formula for their foot webbing is I - II 2+ 3+ III 2− 3+ IV 3+ − 2 V. Their dorsal and ventral skin texture is somewhat rough, or rugose (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
One feature that distinguishes this species from all others in the S. perpusillus species group is that its head that is longer than wide. It also has a unique V-shaped indentation between its nostrils, and a brown undersurface on its tarsus and foot. It is smaller than S. alcatraz, S. arduous, S. littoreous, and S. v-signatus. Each of the species in the species group differs from S. faivovichi in additional ways. Scinax alcatraz has a less protruding snout, a less triangular head, less prominent eyes, a less defined canthus rostralis, a less ornamented dorsum, in addition to lacking both a concave loreal region and dark stripes on arms. Scinax arduous has more prominent eyes, a less protruding snout, and more rugose dorsal skin texture. Scinax atratus has a thicker body, less prominent eyes, a less pronounced canthus rostralis, more rugose dorsal skin, and it lacks the dark stripes on its forearms and the gular region with dark spots. Scinax littoreous has a less pronounced canthus rostralis, smoother dorsal skin, less developed finger disks, a less concave loreal region, has white spots on venter as opposed to brown ones, lacks stripes on its arms and forearms, and has a less ornamented dorsum. Scinax melloi differs in that it is smaller, has smoother skin on its back, a more keratinized inner metacarpal tubercule, a less protruding snout, less prominent eyes, and a smaller head. Scinax peixotoi has a thicker body, less prominent eyes, a less protruding snout, a less pronounced canthus rostralis, and has a silvery dorsum as opposed to a brown one. Scinax v-signatus has a larger wider head, a less pronounced canthus rostralis, more rugose dorsal skin, and a V-shaped dark mark on its dorsal side. Scinax perpusillus has a thicker body, a less protruding snout, and more rugose dorsal skin than S. faivovichi (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
In life, the color of this species’ dorsal side is greenish-beige and possesses metallic hues. In addition, they have a dark brown interorbital bar. They have a dark brown line on their canthus rostralis, upper eyelids, and supratympanic fold. They also have a thick bright stripe running down their back. One to two brown bars run posteriorly from the edge of each eye to the inguinal region. A concealed part of their shanks are adorned with yellow flash color spots. They have a golden iris, with a horizontally oriented black bar (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
In preservative, the color of this species’ dorsal side ranges from creamy to brown. They may or may not have a well-defined interorbital bar, or stripe down their back. In addition, they may or may not have a thick canthus rostralis line or dorsolateral stripes. The pigmentation of the brown bars on the dorsum of their arms also differs amongst individuals. They possess stripes on their thighs running from knee to inguinal region that vary in pigment intensity and location on the thigh. Their throat has dark spots that may appear together in patches. The undersides of their hands, fingers, arms, and thighs are white, while the undersides of their tibiae feet and toes are brown (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
They display sexual dimorphism, with larger females that lack vocal sacs and vocal slits, and possess a darker colored dorsal side than males (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Females are also commonly found perched upon bromeliads in their natural range. Like the others in its S. perpusillus species group, these frogs rely on the bromeliad plants for breeding. Tadpoles of this species can be found in the pools of water that form within bromeliads. Researchers found tadpoles during October and December, and thus noted that this suggests their breeding season may align with the early summer rains of September or October (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Scinax faivovichi belongs to the Scinax perpusillus species group that includes eight other species besides Scinax faivovichi: Scinax alcatraz, Scinax atratus, Scinax arduous, Scinax littoreus, Scinax melloi, Scinax perpusillus, Scinax v-signatus, and Scinax peixotoi (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
The species was named after Julian Faivovich, whom made major contributions to the systematic of the frog family Hylidae, including the genus Scinax (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
Brasileiro, C. 2008. Scinax faivovichi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T136140A4248952. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T136140A4248952.en. Downloaded on 21 Feb. 2017.
Brasileiro, C. A., Oyamaguchi, H. M., and Haddad, C. F. B. (2007). ''A new island species of Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) from southeastern Brazil.'' Journal of Herpetology, 41, 271-275.
Written by Jared DiPrima and Bryan Jeung (jddiprima AT ucdavis.edu, bzjeung AT ucdavis.edu), University of California Davis
First submitted 2017-05-18
Edited by Ann T. Chang (2017-05-18)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2017 Scinax faivovichi <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/6929> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 23, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 23 Oct 2017.
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