Boris I. Timofeev
© PENSOFT Publishers (1 of 7)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, Korea, Republic of, Mongolia, Russian Federation
Bufo raddei inhabits the edges of coniferous and deciduous forests, groves, bushlands, different types of meadows, forest steppes and steppes with sandy, rocky and alluvial soils. The species is abundant in many settlements, some cities and in agricultural landscapes. It occurs both in wet and in dry habitats. Even in the steppe zone, it can occur not only near water bodies (rivers, ponds, lakes etc.), but at a considerable distance from water. However, in dry and continental desert areas the toad is tied to lakes and other permanent water sources. Such populations often are isolated from other populations by vast areas unavailable for amphibians. Spawning occurs in lakes and ponds with stagnant water.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Metamorphosis occurs in June - August. Reproduction in shallow waters leads to high tadpole mortality in the drying wetlands. Otherwise, in some cases, tadpoles overwinter and complete their transformation the following summer.
Tadpoles eat mainly algae and detritus. Recently metamorphosed juveniles mainly eat mites and small insects, particularly Collembola. Adults prey upon spiders, caterpillars, beetles (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae etc.) and, especially, ants. The latter represent an especially important component in dry habitats.
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
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Written by Sergius L. Kuzmin (ipe51 AT yahoo.com), Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
First submitted 1999-09-30
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2007-12-06)
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