adult male :100-166 mm adult female : 135-190 mm Body stout; strong cephalic crests and large parotoid glands on head; skin of dorsum scattered with blunt thorny warts, especially in males; tympanum small, higher than wide; dorsum yellowish in females and juvenils with regular pattern of black blotches and a light midline stripe; the color of the male dorsum is often a bright greenish yellow with only a few black blotches; belly white, marbled with brown.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil, Paraguay
The rain forest (Mata Atlântica) of southeastern and southern Brazil, also in Misiones (Argentina). Usually in elevated forests, also in grassland. During breeding time at streams and standing water bodies, such as lakes, ponds or puddles.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Spawning period from August to January. In November and December hundrets of the diurnal, only 9-10 mm sized, recently metamorphosed froglets leave the breeding places en mass. Males call in and at water bodies, mainly at night but also during the day. The call is a melodious tremolo (pointed out by the indigenous name “Cururu”). The large egg strings with several thousend melanic eggs are deposited at shallow water. The small, black, free swimming larvae live in large congregations, feeding on suspension and grazing on stones and aquatic plants. Most of adult traods are “Sit-and-Wait-Predators” feeding on invertebrates especially Coleoptera and Formicidae.
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Toads from the Eldorado locality, in Misiones, near the Paraná borders, show remarkable morphological peculiarities, with characters both of B. schneideri, as the shape of the dorsal warts or the presence of tibial glands, and of B. ictericus, as the parotoid shape or the dorsal pattern. More available biological data are needed to make clear the identity of such a mixed or intermediate population.
Beckmann, O. (2003). ''Reproduktion und Ernährung der Kröte Bufo ictericus im Waldschutzgebiet Pró-Mata, Araukarienplateau, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien.''
Cei, J. M. (1980). ''Amphibians of Argentina.'' Monitore Zoologica Italiano, New Series Monografia, Firenze, 2, 1-609.
Kwet, A. and Di-Bernardo, M. (1999). Anfíbios - Amphibien - Amphibians. EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre.
Written by Sabine Eger, Nalani Schnell & Mirco Sole (mirco.sole AT uni-tuebingen.de), University of Tuebingen
First submitted 2004-05-27
Edited by Tate Tunstall (2004-08-12)
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on
amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2016. Berkeley, California:
(Accessed: Feb 8, 2016).
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