River Toad, Rough Toad, Giant Asian Toad, Kodok Buduk Sungal, Kodok Puru Besar
Species Description: Gravenhorst, J. L. C. 1829. Deliciae Musei Zoologici Vratislaviensis. Fasciculus primus. Chelonios et Batrachia. Leipzig: Leopold Voss.
© 2003 Pierre-Yves Vaucher (1 of 19)
Bufo asper tadpoles are small, reaching 12-15 mm before metamorphosis. The body is oval and somewhat flattened. The tail is leaf-shaped, rounded with a narrow tip. The lower lip is quite wide (Inger and Stuebing 2005), with the cuplike mouth enabling the tadpole to adhere to the bottom substrate in flowing water (Iskandar 1998). The denticle formula is II/III. Tadpole coloration is either all black or dark brown (Iskandar 1998).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam
Malaysian region distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Bufo asper adults do not move much on a given day (Inger and Stuebing 2005). However, these toads have been found to show net movement (distance between the point of first and last capture over a given time period) of up to 465 m over a period of 180 days (Inger 2003). It has been hypothesized that this vagility may have allowed Bufo asper to disperse between the continent and Borneo over relatively short periods of sea regression during the Pleistocene (Inger 2003).
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
The diploid chromosome number is 22, with five pairs of large chromosomes and six pairs of smaller chromosomes (Iskandar 1998).
Daly, J. W., Noimai, N., Kongkathip, B., Kongkathip, N., Wilham, J. M., Garraffo, H. M., Kaneko, T., Spande, T. F., Ninit, Y., Nabhitabhata, J., and Chan-Ard, T. (2004). ''Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.'' Toxicon, 44, 805-815.
Emerson, S. B., and Hess, D. L. (1996). ''The role of androgens in opportunistic breeding tropical frogs.'' General and Comparative Endocrinology, 103, 220-230.
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. (2006). Global Amphibian Assessment: Bufo asper. www.globalamphibians.org. Accessed on 23 November 2007.
Inger, R. F. (1969). ''Organization of communities of frogs along small rain forest streams in Sarawak.'' Journal of Animal Ecology, 38, 123-148.
Inger, R. F. (2003). ''Sampling biodiversity in Bornean frogs.'' The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 3(1), 9-15.
Inger, R. F. and Bacon, J. P. (1968). ''Annual reproduction and clutch size in rain forest frogs from Sarawak.'' Copeia, 1968, 602-606.
Inger, R. F. and Stuebing, R. B. (2005). A Field Guide to the Frogs of Borneo, 2nd edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
Inger, R. F., Voris, H. K., and Voris, H. H. (1974). ''Genetic variation and population ecology of some Southeast Asian frogs of the genus Bufo and Rana.'' Biochemical Genetics, 12(2), 121-145.
Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
Nguyen, V. S., Ho, C. T., and Nguyen, T. Q. (2005). A Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Vietnam. Nha Xuat Ban Nong Nghiep, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Written by Janel Marcelino (janel_m AT berkeley.edu), AmphibiaWeb intern
First submitted 2006-04-06
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2014-10-29)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2014 Phrynoidis aspera: River Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/110> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 4, 2016.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 4 Dec 2016.
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