AMPHIBIAWEB
bookcover The following literature references are from Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, edited by Michael Lannoo (2005 by the Regents of the University of California), used with permission of University of California Press. The book is available from UC Press.

Literature references beginning with letter:     [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [Y] [Z]

La Marca, E. and H.P. Reinthaler. 1991. Population changes in Atelopus species of the Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 22:125–128.
Laan, R. and B. Verboom. 1990. Effects of pool size and isolation on amphibian communities. Biological Conservation 54:251–262.
Labanick, G.M. 1976a. Growth rates of recently transformed Bufo woodhousei fowleri. Copeia 1976:824–826.
Labanick, G.M. 1976b. Prey availability, consumption and selection in the cricket frog Acris crepitans: Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae. Journal of Herpetology 10:293–298.
Labanick, G.M. 1984. Anti-predator effectiveness of autotomized tails of the salamander Desmognathus ochrophaeus. Herpetologica 40:110–118.
Labanick, G.M. and R.A. Schleuter. 1976. Diets of sympatric Acris crepitans and juvenile Bufo woodhousei fowleri in western Indiana, USA. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 80:460.
Lacher, T.E., Jr. and M.I. Goldstein. 1997. Tropical ecotoxicology: status and needs. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:100–111.
LaClaire, L.V. 2001. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; final rule to list the Mississippi gopher frog distinct population segment of dusky gopher frog as endangered. Federal Register 66:62993–63001.
LaClaire, L.V. and R. Franz. 1991. Importance of isolated wetlands in upland landscapes. Pp. 9–15. In Kelly, M. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting, Florida Lake Management Society, Winterhaven, Florida.
LaClaire, L.V., R.N. Smith, S. Smith and J. Palis. 1995. Geographic distribution: Notophthalmus perstriatus. Herpetolological Review 26:103–104.
Lacy, R.C. 1993. VORTEX: a computer simulation model for population viability analysis. Wildlife Research 20:45–65.
Lacy, R.C., K.A. Hughes and T.J. Kreeger. 1993. VORTEX: A stochastic simulation of the extinction process. Users manual for Version 6. Second edition. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.
Lacy, R.C., K.A. Hughes and P.S. Miller. 1995. VORTEX: A stochastic simulation of the extinction process. Users manual for Version 7. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.
Ladd, D.E. 1947. Size of adult Eurycea l. longicauda (Green). Herpetologica 4:2.
Laerm, J. and A.S. Hopkins Jr. 1997. Status of possible disjunct populations of the southern toad, Bufo terrestris, in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge of Georgia. Herpetological Review 28:162–163.
Lafferty, K.D. and A.K. Morris. 1996. Altered behavior of parasitized killifish increases host susceptibility to predation by bird final hosts. Ecology 77:1390–1397.
Lafferty, K.D. and C.J. Page. 1997. Predation on the endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, by the introduced African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, with notes on the frog's parasites. Copeia 1997:589–592.
LaGrange, T.G. and J.J. Dinsmore. 1989. Habitat use by mallards during spring migration through central Iowa. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1076–1081.
Laird, S. 1995. Taxpayers deserve respect. Smithville Times, 16 February.
Lakatos, I. 1970. Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. Pp. 189–195. In Lakatos, I. and A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Lamb, T. 1984. The influence of sex and breeding conditions on microhabitat selection and diet in the pig frog, Rana grylio. American Midland Naturalist 111:311–318.
Lamb, T. 1987. Call site selection in a hybrid population of treefrogs. Animal Behaviour 35:1140–1144.
Lamb, T. and J.C. Avise. 1986. Directional introgression of mitochondrial DNA in a hybrid population of treefrogs: the influence of mating behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83:2526–2530.
Lamb, T. and J.C. Avise. 1987. Morphological variability in genetically defined categories of anuran hybrids. Evolution 41:157–165.
Lamb, T., B.K. Sullivan and K.B. Malmos. 2000. Mitochondrial gene markers for the hybridizing toads Bufo microscaphus and Bufo woodhousii in Arizona. Copeia 2000:234–237.
Lamb, T., J.M. Novak and D.L. Mahoney. 1990. Morphological asymmetry and interspecific hybridization: a case study using hylid frogs. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 3:295–309.
Lamb, T., R.W. Gaul Jr., M.L. Tripp, J.M. Horton and B.W. Grant. 1998. A herpetofaunal inventory of the lower Roanoke River floodplain. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 114:43–55.
Lambert, D.M. and H.G. Spencer (Eds.). 1995. Speciation and the Recognition Concept. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Lamoureux, V.S. and D.M. Madison. 1999. Overwintering habitats of radio-implanted green frogs, Rana clamitans. Journal of Herpetology 33:430–435.
Lampo, M. 1995. The identification of ticks that infect Bufo marinus in South America and their impact on toad populations. CSIRO Bufo Project: An overview of research outcomes, Unpublished report, CSIRO, Australia, Centro de Ecologia, Venezuela.
Lampo, M. and G.A. De Leo. 1998. The invasion ecology of the toad Bufo marinus: From South America to Australia. Ecological Applications 8:388–396.
Lampo, M. and P. Bayliss. 1996. Density estimates of cane toads from native populations based on mark-recapture data. Wildlife Research 23:305–315.
Lancaster, D.L. and R.G. Jaeger. 1995. Rules of engagement for adult salamanders in territorial conflicts with heterospecific juveniles. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 37:25–29.
Lancaster, D.L. and S.E. Wise. 1996. Differential response by the ringneck snake, Diadophis punctatus, to odors of tail-autotomizing prey. Herpetologica 52:98–108.
Lance, S.L. and K.D. Wells. 1993. Are spring peeper satellite males physiologically inferior to calling males? Copeia 1993:1162–1166.
Lancia, R.A., J.D. Nichols and K.H. Pollock. 1994. Estimating the number of animals in wildlife populations. Pp. 215–253. In Bookout, T.A. (Ed.), Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats. Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Lande, R. 1988. Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241:1455–1460.
Lande, R. 1993. Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. American Naturalist 142:911–927.
Lande, R. and G.F. Barrowclough. 1987. Effective population size, genetic variation, and their use in population management. Pp. 87–123. In Soulé, M.E. (Ed.), Viable Populations. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Lande, R.L., S. Engen and B.-E. Saether. 1995. Optimal harvesting of fluctuating populations with a risk of extinction. American Naturalist 145:728–745.
Landé, S.P. and S.I. Guttman. 1973. The effects of copper sulfate on the growth and mortality rate of Rana pipiens tadpoles. Herpetologica 29:22–27.
Landewe, J.E. 1963. Helminth and arthropod parasites of salamanders from southern Illinois. Master's thesis. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.
Landreth, H.F. and M.T. Christensen. 1971. Orientation of the plains spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus bombifrons, to solar cues. Herpetologica 27:454–461.
Landreth, H.F. and D.E. Ferguson. 1966. Evidence of sun-compass orientation in the chorus frog, Pseudacris triseriata. Herpetologica 22:106–112.
Landreth, H.F. and D.E. Ferguson. 1967a. Newt orientation by sun-compass. Nature 215:516–518.
Landreth, H.F. and D.E. Ferguson. 1967b. Newts: sun-compass orientation. Science 158:1459–1461.
Landreth, H.F. and D.E. Ferguson. 1968. The sun compass of Fowler’s toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri. Behaviour 30:27–43.
Lane, M.A. 2001. The homeless specimens: handling relinquished natural history collections. Museum News (American Association of Museums), January/February 2001:61–63, 82–83.
Lang, B.Z. 1968. The life cycle of Cephalogonimus americanus Stafford, 1902 (Trematoda: Cephalogonimidae). Journal of Parasitology 54:945–949.
Lang, B.Z. and L.N. Gleason. 1967. Life cycle of Metagonimoides oregonensis Price, 1931 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in North Carolina. Journal of Parasitology 53:93.
Lang, C. 1995. Size-fecundity relationships among stream-breeding hylid frogs. Herpetological Natural History 3:193–197.
Lang, C. and R.G. Jaeger. 2000. Defense of territories by male-female pairs in the red-backed salamander. Copeia 2000:169–177.
Lang, J.W. 1972. Geographic distribution: Ambystoma maculatum. Herpetological Review 4:170.
Lannoo, M.J. 1986. Vision is not necessary for size-selective zooplanktivory in aquatic salamanders. Canadian Journal of Zoology 44:1071–1078.
Lannoo, M.J. 1987. Neuromast topography in urodele amphibians. Journal of Morphology 191:247–263.
Lannoo, M.J. 1996. Okoboji Wetlands: A Lesson in Natural History. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Lannoo, M.J. 1998a. Amphibian conservation and wetland management in the upper midwest: a catch-22 for the cricket frog? Pp. 330–339. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.) 1998b. Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press. Iowa City, Iowa.
Lannoo, M.J. 1998c. Conclusion. Pp. 429–431. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Lannoo, M.J. 1998d. Introduction. Pp. xi–xviii. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwest Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Lannoo, M.J. 2000. Conclusions drawn from the malformity and disease session, Midwest Declining Amphibians Conference, 1998. Pp. 212–216. In Kaiser, H., G.S. Casper and N.P. Bernstein (Eds.), Investigating Amphibian Declines: Proceedings of the 1998 Declining Amphibians Conference. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, Volume 107, Cedar Falls, Iowa.
Lannoo, M.J. and M.D. Bachmann. 1984a. Aspects of cannibalistic morphs in a population of Ambystoma t. tigrinum larvae. American Midland Naturalist 112:103–109.
Lannoo, M.J. and M.D. Bachmann. 1984b. On flotation and air breathing in Ambystoma tigrinum larvae: stimuli for and the relationship between these behaviors. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:15–18.
Lannoo, M.J., L. Lowcock and J. Bogart. 1989. Sibling cannibalism in non-cannibal morph Ambystoma tigrinum larvae results in high growth rates and early metamorphosis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:1911–1914.
Lannoo, M.J., D.S. Townsend and R.J. Wassersug. 1987. Larval life in the leaves: arboreal tadpoles types, with special attention to the morphology, ecology, and behavior of the oophagous Osteopilus brunneus (Hylidae) larva. Fieldiana Zoology New Series Number 38, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
Lannoo, M.J., J.A. Holman, G.S. Casper and E. Johnson. 1998. Mummification following winterkill of adult green frogs (Ranidae: Rana clamitans). Herpetological Review 29:82–84.
Lannoo, M.J., K. Lang, T. Waltz and G.S. Phillips. 1994. An altered amphibian assemblage: Dickinson County, Iowa, 70 years after Frank Blanchard’s survey. American Midland Naturalist 131:311–319.
Lannoo, M.J., D.R. Sutherland, P. Jones, D. Rosenberry, R.W. Klaver, D.M. Hoppe, P.T.J. Johnson, K.B. Lunde, C. Facemire and J.M. Kapfer. 2003. Multiple causes for the malformed frog phenomenon. Pp. 233–262. In Linder, G., S. Krest, D. Sparling and E. Little (Eds.), Multiple Stressor Effects in Relation to Declining Amphibian Populations. American Society for Testing Materials International, West Conshoshocken, Pensylvannia.
Lantz, L.A. 1930. Notes on the breeding habits and larval development of Ambystoma opacum. Annals of the Magazine of Natural History 5:322–325.
LaPointe, J. 1953. Noteworthy amphibian records from Indiana Dunes State Park. Copeia 1953:129.
Lardie, R.L. and B.P. Glass. 1975. Geographic distribution: Ambystoma texanum (small-mouthed salamander). Herpetological Review 6:115.
Larochelle, A. 1974. The American toad as champion carabid beetle collector. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 50:203–204.
Larochelle, A. 1975a. Trente especes de carabidae dans des boulettes fecales de crapaud americain. Cordulia 1:116.
Larochelle, A. 1975b. Le crapaud americain, predateur de coleopteres carabiques. Carabologia 4:151–152.
Larochelle, A. 1976. New data on carabid beetles as prey of the American toad. Cordulia 2:130.
Larochelle, A. 1977a. New data on Carabidae as prey of the American toad. Cordulia 3:38.
Larochelle, A. 1977b. Des boulettes fecales de crapaud (Bufo) contenant des carabidae. Fabreries 3:36.
Larochelle, A. 1977c. The Carabidae Coleoptera as prey of the American toad Bufo americanus. Cordulia 3:147–152.
Larson, A. 1980. Paedomorphosis in relation to rates of morphological and molecular evolution in the salamander Aneides flavipunctatus (Amphibia, Plethodontidae). Evolution 34:1–17.
Larson, A. and P. Chippindale. 1993. Molecular approaches to the evolutionary biology of plethodontid salamanders. Herpetologica 49:204–215.
Larson, A. and R. Highton. 1978. Geographic protein variation and divergence in the salamanders of the Plethodon welleri group (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). Systematic Zoology 27:431–448.
Larson, A., D.B. Wake and K.P. Yanev. 1984. Measuring gene flow among populations having high levels of genetic fragmentation. Genetics 106:293–308.
Larson, D.D. 1998. Tiger salamander life history in relation to agriculture in the northern Great Plains: a hypothesis. Pp. 325–329. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Larson, D.W. 1968. The occurrence of neotenic salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli Dunn, in Devils Lake, North Dakota. Copeia 1968:620–621.
Larson, K., W. Duffy, E. Johnson and M.J. Lannoo. 1999. "Paedocannibal" morph barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) from east central South Dakota with comments on the origin of cannibal morph eastern tiger salamanders (A. t. tigrinum) from northwest Iowa. American Midland Naturalist 141:124–139.
Larvor, B. 1998. Lakatos: An Introduction. Routledge, New York.
Latham, R. 1968. Notes on the eating of May beetles by a Fowler’s toad. Engelhardtia 1:29.
Latham, R. 1970. The diet of shrikes on Long Island. Engelhardtia 3:29.
Latham, R. 1971a. Notes on the Fowler’s toad at Orient, Long Island. Engelhardtia 4:57–58.
Latham, R. 1971b. The Fowler’s toad on Gardiner’s Island. Engelhardtia 4:54.
Latham, R. 1971c. Note on the food of the American bittern. Engelhardtia 4:50.
Latreille, P.A. 1801. In Sonnini, C.S. and P.A. Latreille, (Ar. X) Histoire naturelle des reptiles, avec figures dessinees d’ après nature. Ches Deterville, Paris, France.
Laurance, W.F. 1996. Catastrophic declines of Australian rainforest frogs: is unusual weather responsible? Biological Conservation 77:203–212.
Laurance, W.F., K.R. McDonald and R. Speare. 1996. Epidemic disease and the catastrophic decline of Australian rain forest frogs. Conservation Biology 10:406–413.
Laurance, W.F., K.R. McDonald and R. Speare. 1997. In defense of the epidemic disease hypothesis. Conservation Biology 11:1030–1034.
Laurin, G. and D.M. Green. 1990. Spring emergence and male breeding behaviour of Fowler's toads, (Bufo woodhousei fowleri), at Long Point, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:429–434.
Lauzon, R.D. and P. Balagus. 1998. New records from the northern range of the plains spadefoot, Spea bombifrons, in Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112:506–509.
Lavery, H.J. 1969. Collisions between aircraft and birds at Townsville, Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 26:447–455.
Lawler, K. and J.-M. Hero. 1997. Palatability of Bufo marinus tadpoles to a predatory fish decreases with development. Wildlife Research 24:327–334.
Lawler, S.P. 1989. Behavioral responses to predators and predation risk in four species of larval anurans. Animal Behaviour 38:1039–1047.
Lawler, S.P., D. Dritz, T. Strange and M. Holyoak. 1999. Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red-legged frog. Conservation Biology 13:613–622.
Lawton, J.H., J.R. Prendergast and B.C. Eversham. 1994. The numbers and spatial distributions of species: analyses of British data. Pp. 177–195. In Forey, P.L., C.J. Humphries and R.I. Vane-Wright (Eds.), Systematics and Conservation Evaluation. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Layne, J.R. 1992. Postfreeze survival and muscle function in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). Journal of Thermal Biology 17:121–124.
Layne, J.R. and M.A. Romano. 1985. Critical thermal minima of Hyla chrysoscelis, H. cinerea, H. gratiosa and natural hybrids (H. cinerea x H. gratiosa). Herpetologica 41:216–221.
Layne, J.R., Jr. 1991. External ice triggers freezing in freeze-tolerant frogs at temperatures above their supercooling point. Journal of Herpetology 25:129–130.
Layne, J.R., M. Romano and S.I. Guttman. 1989. Responses to desiccation of the treefrogs Hyla cinerea and H. gratiosa and their natural hybrids. American Midland Naturalist 121:61–67.
Lazell, J.D., Jr. 1976. This Broken Archipelago. Cape Cod and the Islands, Amphibians and Reptiles. Demeter Press, New York.
Lazell, J.D., Jr. 1989. Wildlife of the Florida Keys: A Natural History. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Lazell, J. 1992. Taxonomic tyranny and the exoteric. Herpetological Review 23:14.
Lazell, J. 1994. Recognition characters and juxtaposition of Florida and Mississippi slimy salamanders (Plethodon glutinosus complex). Florida Scientist 57:129–140.
Lazell, J. 1995. Natural history notes: Plethodon albagula (western slimy salamander). Foot anomalies. Herpetological Review 26:198.
Lazell, J. 1998. New salamander of the genus Plethodon from Mississippi. Copeia 1998:967–970.
Lazell, J.D., Jr. and R.A. Brandon. 1962. A new stygian salamander from the southern Cumberland Plateau. Copeia 1962:300–306.
Lazell, J. and T. Mann. 1991. Geographic distribution: Bufo americanus charlesmithi (dwarf American toad). Herpetological Review 22:62, 64.
Lazell, J.D., Jr. and C. Raithel. 1986. Geographic distribution: Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticus (northern spring salamander). Herpetological Review 17:26.
Le Cren, E.D. 1955. Year to year variation in year-class strength of Perca fluviatalis. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereingung Limnologie 12:187–192.
Le Cren, E.D. 1965. Some factors regulating the size of populations of freshwater fish. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereingung Limnologie 13:88–105.
Lea, W.A. 1998. Letter to N.D. Hooks, 9 March.
Lean, D.R.S. 1998. Influence of UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems. Pp. 1–20. In Little, E.E., A.J. DeLonay and B.M. Greenburg (Eds.), Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Seventh volume. American Society for Testing and Materials, STP 1333, West Conshoshocken, Pennsylvania.
Learm, J., T.C. Carter, M.A. Menzel, T.S. McCay, J.L. Boone, W.M. Ford, L.T. Lepardo, D.M. Krishon, G. Balkcom, N.L. Vad der Maath and M.L. Harris. 1999. Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of Sapelo Island, Georgia. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 115:104–126.
Leary, C.J. 2001a. Evidence of convergent character displacement in release vocalizations of Bufo fowleri and Bufo terrestris (Anura; Bufonidae). Animal Behaviour 61:431–438.
Leary, C.J. 2001b. Investigating opposing patterns of character displacement in release and advertisement vocalizations of Bufo fowleri and Bufo americanus (Anura; Bufonidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:1577–1585.
Leclair, R. and J. Castanet. 1987. A skeletochronological assessment of age and growth in the frog Rana pipiens Schreber (Amphibia, Anura) from southwestern Quebec. Copeia 1987:361–369.
Leclair, R., Jr. and G. Laurin. 1996. Growth and body size in populations of mink frogs Rana septentrionalis from two latitudes. Ecography 19:296–304.
Leclair, R., Jr. and J.P. Bourassa. 1981. Observation et analyse de la larves de Dipteres chironomides, dans la region de Trois-Rivieres (Quebec). Canadian Journal of Zoology 59:1339–1343.
Leclair, R., Jr. and L. Vallieres. 1981. Regimes alimentaires de Bufo americanus (Holbrook) et Rana sylvatica Leconte (Amphibia: Anura) novellement metamorphoses. Naturaliste Canadienne 108:325–329.
Leclair, R., Jr., Y. Alarie and J.P. Bourassa. 1986. Prey choice in larval Dytiscus harrisii Kirby and D. verticalis Say (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Entomologica Basiliensia 11:337–342.
LeClaire, L.V. No date. Status review of Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus bishopi). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jackson, Mississippi.
LeConte, J. [E.] 1824. Description of a new species of Siren, with some observations on animals of a similar nature. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 1:52–58.
LeConte, J. 1825. Remarks on the American species of the genera Hyla and Rana. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 1:278–282.
LeConte, J. 1855. Descriptive catalog of the Ranina of the United States. Proceedings of the Academy of the Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 7:423–431.
LeConte, J. 1856. Description of a new species of Hyla from Georgia. Proceedings of the Academy of the Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8:146.
Ledwith, T. 1996. The effects of buffer strip width on air temperature and relative humidity in a stream side riparian zone. WMC Networker, Summer:6–7.
Lee, D.S. 1968a. Observations on hybrid Hyla gratiosa x cinerea in central Florida. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 4:76–78.
Lee, D.S. 1968b. Herpetofauna associated with central Florida mammals. Herpetologica 24:83–84.
Lee, D.S. 1969a. Floridian herpetofauna associated with cabbage palms. Herpetologica 25:70–71.
Lee, D.S. 1969b. Notes on the feeding behavior of cave-dwelling bullfrogs. Herpetologica 25:211–212.
Lee, D.S. 1969c. Observations on the feeding habits of the Congo eel. Florida Naturalist 42:95.
Lee, D.S. 1969d. A food study of the salamander Haideotriton wallacei Carr. Herpetologica 25:175–177.
Lee, D.S. 1973. Seasonal breeding distributions for selected Maryland and Delaware amphibians. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 9:101–104.
Lee, D.S. and L.R. Franz. 1973. Red leg in a subterranean population of pickerel frogs. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 9:111.
Lee, D.S. and L.R. Franz. 1974. Comments on the feeding behavior of larval tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 10:105–107.
Lee, D.S. and A.W. Norden. 1973. A food study of the green salamander, Aneides aeneus. Journal of Herpetology 7:53–54.
Lee, J.C. 1996. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Yucatan Peninsula. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Lee, J.C. 2000. A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Maya World: The Lowlands of Mexico, Northern Guatemala, and Belize. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Lee, R.E. and J.P. Costanzo. 1998. Biological ice nucleation and ice distribution in cold-hardy ectothermic animals. Annual Review of Physiology 60:55–72.
Lee, Y.M. 1998. Recent surveys of Blanchard’s cricket frogs (Acris crepitans blanchardi) in southern Michigan. P. 14. In Abstracts, Midwest Declining Amphibians Conference, March 20–21. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Lefcort, H. 1996. Adaptive, chemically mediated fright response in tadpoles of the southern leopard frog, Rana utricularia. Copeia 1996:455–459.
Lefcort, H. 1998. Chemically mediated fright response in southern toad (Bufo terrestris) tadpoles. Copeia 1998:445–450.
Lefcort, H. and A.R. Blaustein. 1995. Disease, predator avoidance, and vulnerability to predation in tadpoles. Oikos 74:469–474.
Lefcort, H. and S.M. Eiger. 1993. Antipredatory behaviour of feverish tadpoles: implications for pathogen transmission. Behaviour 126:13–27.
Lefcort, H., K.A. Hancock, K.M. Maur and D.C. Rostal. 1977. The effects of used motor oil, silt, and the water mold Saprolegnia parasitica on the growth and survival of mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32:383–388.
Lefcort, H., R.A. Meguire, L.H. Wilson and W.F. Ettinger. 1998. Heavy metals alter the survival, growth, metamorphosis, and antipredatory behavior of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) tadpoles. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35:447–456.
Leff, L.G. and M.D. Bachmann. 1986. Ontogenetic changes in predatory behavior of larval tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1337–1344.
Leftwich, K.N. and P.D. Lilly. 1992. The effects of duration of exposure to acidic conditions on survival of Bufo americanus embryos. Journal of Herpetology 26:70–71.
Leggett, M. 1994. Trees, toads the key issues in Lost Pines golf project. Austin American-Statesman, 26 August.
Leggett, M. 1998. Auditors uncover deficit in parks: multimillion-dollar yearly drain in state system could force big changes in operations. Austin American-Statesman, 3 October.
LeGrand, H.E., Jr. and S.P. Hall. 1995. Natural Heritage Program list of the rare animal species of North Carolina. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Division of Parks and Recreation, N.C. Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Raleigh, North Carolina.
LeGrand, H.E., Jr. and S.P. Hall. 1999. Natural Heritage Program list of the rare animal species of North Carolina. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Division of Parks and Recreation, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Lehman, N., A. Eisenhawer, K. Hansen, D.L. Mech, R.O. Peterson, J.P. Gogan and R.K. Wayne. 1991. Introgression of coyote mitochondrial DNA into sympatric North American gray wolf populations. Evolution 45:104–119.
Lehmann, D.L. 1954. Some helminths of West Coast urodeles. Journal of Parasitology 40:231.
Lehmann, D.L. 1955. A new host record for Trypanosoma ambystomae with the description of an additional morphological type of the parasite. Journal of Parasitology 41:552.
Lehmann, D.L. 1956. Some helminths of Oregon urodeles. Journal of Parasitology 42:25.
Lehmann, D.L. 1959. Trypanosoma granulosae n. sp. from the newt, Taricha granulosa twittyi. Journal of Protozoology 6:167–169.
Lehmann, D.L. 1960. Some parasites of central California amphibians. Journal of Parasitology 46:10.
Lehmann, D.L. 1964. Intestinal parasites of northwestern amphibians. Yearbook of the American Philosophy Society 1965:284–285.
Lehmann, D.L. 1966. Two blood parasites of Peruvian Amphibia. Journal of Parasitology 52:613.
Lehtinen, R.M., S.M. Galatowitsch and J.R. Tester. 1999. Consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation for wetland amphibian assemblages. Wetlands 19:1–12.
Leigh, W.H. 1946. Experimental studies on the life cycle of Glypthelmins quieta (Stafford, 1900), a trematode of frogs. American Midland Naturalist 35:460–483.
Leighton, F.A. 1995. Pathogens and disease. Pp. 509–518. In Hoffman, D.J., B.A. Rattner, G.A. Burton Jr. and J. Cairns Jr. (Eds.), Handbook of Ecotoxicology. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida.
Leips, J. and J. Travis. 1994. Metamorphic response to changing food levels in two species of hylid frogs. Ecology 75:1345–1356.
Leja, W.T. 1998. Aquatic habitats in the Midwest: waiting for amphibian conservation initiatives. Pp. 345–353. In Lannoo, M.J. (Ed.), Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa.
Lemmel, G. 1977. Die Lurche und Kriechtiere Niedersachsens. Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege in Niedersachsen 5:1–76.
Lenaker, R.P. 1972. Xenopus in Orange County. Unpublished report, California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo, California.
LeNoir, J.S., L.L. McConnell, G.M. Fellers, T.M. Cahill and James N. Seiber. 1999. Summertime transport of current-use pesticides from California’s Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:2715–2722.
Leonard, M., Vatnick, I., M. Brodkin and M. Simon. 1999. The effect of cold exposure on bacterial content of the gut and spleen of adult northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). American Zoologist 39:76A.
Leonard, W.P. 1996. Natural history notes: Plethodon vehiculum (western red-backed salamander). Habitat. Herpetological Review 27:195.
Leonard, W.P. and D.M. Darda. 1995. Natural history notes: Ambystoma tigrinum (tiger salamander). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 26:29–30.
Leonard, W.P. and O.R. Klaus. 1994. Western long-toed salamander demographics and oviposition in a small vernal wetland of the Puget Sound lowlands. Northwest Science 68:135.
Leonard, W.P. and R.C. Stebbins. 1999. Observations of antipredator tactics of the sharp-tailed snake (Contia tenuis). Northwestern Naturalist 80:74–77.
Leonard, W.P., L. Hallock and K.R. McAllister. 1997. Natural history notes: Rana pretiosa (Oregon spotted frog). Behavior and reproduction. Herpetological Review 28:86.
Leonard, W.P., K.R. McAllister and R.C. Friesz. 1999. Survey and assessment of northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) populations in Washington State. Northwestern Naturalist 80:51–60.
Leonard, W.P., L.L. Todd and M.A. Leonard. 1998. Geographic distribution: Dicamptodon copei (Cope’s giant salamander). Herpetological Review 29:244.
Leonard, W.P., H.A. Brown, L.L.C. Jones, K.R. McAllister and R.M. Storm. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Trailside Series. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington.
Lepage, M., J. DesGranges, J. Rodrigue and M. Ouellet. 1997. Anuran species richness in agricultural landscapes of Quebec: foreseeing long‑term results of road call surveys. Pp. 141–148. In Green, D.M. (Ed.), Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Herpetological Conservation, Number 1, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Lepage, M., R. Courtois, C. Daigle and S. Matte. 1997. Surveying calling anurans in Quebec using volunteers. Pp. 128–140. In Green, D.M. (Ed.), Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Herpetological Conservation, Number 1, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Leslie, P.H. and R.M. Ranson. 1940. The mortality, fertility and rate of natural increase of the vole (Microtus agrestis) as observed in the laboratory. Journal of Animal Ecology 9:27–52.
Levell, J. 1995. A Field Guide to Reptiles and the Law. Serpent's Tale Press, Excelsior, Minnesota.
Levell, J.P. 1997. A Field Guide to Reptiles and the Law. Revised Second edition. Serpent's Tale, Lanesboro, Minnesota.
Levey, R.B. 2000. Investigation of abnormal northern leopard frogs in Vermont. Pp. A-90. In Lean, D. and J. Ridal (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Association for Great Lakes Research, Annual Conference, Cornwall, Ontario.
Levins, R. 1969. Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 15:237–240.
Levins, R. 1970. Extinction. Pp. 77–107. In Gerstenhaber, M. (Ed.), Some Mathematical Problems in Biology. American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island.
Lewis, D.L., G.T. Baxter, K.M. Johnson and M.D. Stone. 1985. Possible extinction of the Wyoming toad, Bufo hemiophrys baxteri. Journal of Herpetology 19:166–168.
Lewis, W.M. 1962. Stomach contents of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) taken from a minnow hatchery. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 55:80–83.
Licht, L.E. 1967a. Growth inhibition in crowded tadpoles: intraspecific and interspecific effects. Ecology 48:736–745.
Licht, L.E. 1967b. Death following possible ingestion of toad eggs. Toxicon 5:141–142.
Licht, L.E. 1967c. The initial appearance of the parotoid gland in three species of toads (genus Bufo). Herpetologica 23:115–118.
Licht, L.E. 1968. Unpalatability and toxicity of toad eggs. Herpetologica 24:93–98.
Licht, L.E. 1969a. Palatability of Rana and Hyla eggs. American Midland Naturalist 82:296–298.
Licht, L.E. 1969b. Comparative breeding behavior of the red-legged frog (Rana aurora aurora) and the western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa pretiosa) in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47:1287–1299.
Licht, L.E. 1969c. Observations on the courtship behavior of Ambystoma gracile. Herpetologica 25:49–52.
Licht, L.E. 1971. Breeding habits and embryonic thermal requirements of the frogs, Rana aurora aurora and Rana pretiosa pretiosa, in the Pacific Northwest. Ecology 52:116–124.
Licht, L.E. 1974. Survival of embryos, tadpoles and adult frogs, Rana aurora aurora and Rana pretiosa pretiosa, sympatric in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 52:613–627.
Licht, L.E. 1975a. Comparative life history features of the western spotted frog, Rana pretiosa, from low- and high-elevation populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:1254–1257.
Licht, L.E. 1975b. Growth and food of larval Ambystoma gracile from a lowland population in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:1716–1722.
Licht, L.E. 1976. Sexual selection in toads (Bufo americanus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 54:1277–1284.
Licht, L.E. 1986a. Food and feeding behavior of sympatric red-legged frogs, Rana aurora, and spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa, in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 100:22–31.
Licht, L.E. 1986b. Comparative escape behavior of sympatric Rana aurora and Rana pretiosa. American Midland Naturalist 115:239–247.
Licht, L.E. 1989. Reproductive parameters of unisexual Ambystoma on Pelee Island, Ontario. Pp. 209–217. In Dawley, R.M. and J.P. Bogart (Eds.), The Evolution and Ecology of Unisexual Vertebrates. New York State Museum Bulletin, Number 466, Albany, New York.
Licht, L.E. 1991. Habitat selection of Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica during exposure to warm and cold temperatures. American Midland Naturalist 125:259–268.
Licht, L.E. 1992. The effect of food level on growth rate and frequency of metamorphosis and paedomorphosis in Ambystoma gracile. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:87–93.
Licht, L.E. and J.P. Bogart. 1990. Courtship behavior of Ambystoma texanum on Pelee Island, Ontario. Journal of Herpetology 24:450–452.
Licht, L.E. and B. Low. 1968. Cardiac response of snakes after ingestion of toad parotoid venom. Copeia 1968:547–551.
Licht, L.E. and D.M. Sever. 1991. Cloacal anatomy of metamorphosed and neotenic salamanders. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2230–2233.
Licht, P. and A.G. Brown. 1967. Behavioral thermoregulation and its role in the ecology of the red-bellied newt, Taricha rivularis. Ecology 48:598–611.
Ligas, F.J. 1960. The Everglades bullfrog life history and management. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, Florida.
Lillywhite, H.B. 1970. Behavioral temperature regulation in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Copeia 1970:158–168.
Lillywhite, H.B. 1971. Temperature selection by the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 40:213–227.
Lillywhite, H.B. 1974a. Comments on postmetamorphic aggregate of Bufo boreas. Copeia 1974:984–986.
Lillywhite, H.B. 1974b. How frogs regulate their body temperature. Environment Southwest 465:3–6.
Lillywhite, H.B. and P. Licht. 1974. Movement of water over toad skin: functional role of epidermal sculpturing. Copeia 1974:165–170.
Lillywhite, H.B. and P. Licht. 1975. A comparative study of integumentary mucous secretions in amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 51:937–941.
Lillywhite, H.B. and R.J. Wassersug. 1974. Comments on a postmetamorphic aggregate of Bufo boreas. Copeia 1974:984–986.
Lillywhite, H.B., P. Licht and P. Chelgren. 1973. The role of behavioral thermoregulation in the growth energetics of the toad, Bufo boreas. Ecology 54:375–383.
Limbaugh, B.A. and E.P. Volpe. 1957. Early development of the Gulf Coast toad, Bufo valliceps Wiegmann. American Museum Novitates, Number 1842, American Museum of Natural History, New York.
Linam, L.A. and J. Grote 1995. Letter to Lisa O’Donnell, 1 May.
Lind, A.J. 1990. Ontogenetic changes in the foraging behavior, habitat use, and food habits of the western aquatic garter snake, Thamnophis couchii at Hurdygurdy Creek, Del Norte Co., California. Master's thesis. Humboldt State University, Arcata, California.
Lind, A.J. and H.H. Welsh Jr. 1990. Predation by Thamnophis couchii on Dicamptodon ensatus. Journal of Herpetology 24:104–106.
Lind, A.J. and H.H. Welsh Jr. 1994. Ontogenetic changes in foraging behaviour and habitat use by the Oregon garter snake, Thamnophis atratus hydrophilus. Animal Behaviour 48:1261–1273.
Lind, A.J., J.B. Bettaso and S.M. Yarnell. 2003. Natural history notes: Rana boylii (foothill yellow-legged frog) and Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review 34:234–235.
Lind, A.J., H.H. Welsh Jr. and R.A. Wilson. 1996. The effects of a dam on breeding habitat and egg survival of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii) in northwestern California. Herpetological Review 27:62–67.
Lindeman, P.V. 1993. Food of the Coeur d’Alene salamander (Plethodon idahoensis) at Elk Creek Falls, Idaho. Northwestern Naturalist 74:58–59.
Lindenmayer, D.B. and H.P. Possingham. 1995. The risk of extinction: ranking management options for Leadbeatter's possum using population vulnerability analysis. Center for Resources and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, New South Wales, Australia.
Linder, G. and B. Grillitsch. 2000. Ecotoxicology of metals. Pp. 325–459. In Sparling, D.W., G. Linder and C.A. Bishop (Eds.), Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for Environmental Toxicology and Contaminants (SETAC) Press, Pensacola, Florida.
Linder, H.P. 1995. Setting conservation priorities: the importance of endemism and phylogeny in the souther African orchid genus Herschelia. Conservation Biology 9:585–595.
Lindsay, H.L. 1954. The narrow-mouthed toads Microhyla olivacea and M. carolinensis in northeastern Oklahoma. Copeia 1954:158.
Liner, E.A. 1954. The herpetofauna of Lafayette, Terrebonne, and Vermillion parishes, Louisiana. Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Science 17:65–85.
Liner, E.A. 1955. A herpetological consideration of the Bayou Tortue Region of LaFayette Parish, Louisiana. Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences 18:39–42.
Ling, R.L. and J.K. Werner. 1988. Mortality in Ambystoma maculatum larvae due to Tetrahymena infection. Herpetological Review 19:26–27.
Ling, R.L., J.P. VanAmburg and J.K. Werner. 1986. Pond acidity and its relationship to larval development of Ambystoma maculatum and Rana sylvatica in Upper Michigan. Journal of Herpetology 20:230–236.
Link, C.E. 1998. Amphibian colonization and use of constructed ponds on Maryland’s eastern shore. Pp. 14–15. In Abstracts, Midwest Declining Amphibians Conference, March 20–21. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Linnaeus, C. 1737 [1983]. The Critica Botanica. Translated by A. Hort. The Ray Society, London, England.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tenth edition, Volume 1, L. Salvius, Stockholm, Sweden.
Linnaeus, C. 1766. Systema Naturae. Twelth edition, Volume 1, Part 2 (Addenda) (not paginated), L. Salvius, Stockholm, Sweden.
Linsdale, J.M. 1927. Amphibians and reptiles of Doniphan County, Kansas. Copeia 164:75–81.
Linsdale, J.M. 1932. Amphibians and reptiles from Lower California. University of California Publications in Zoology 36:345–386.
Linsdale, J.M. 1933a. Records of Ascaphus truei in Idaho. Copeia 1933:223.
Linsdale, J.M. 1933b. A specimen of Rana tarahumarae from New Mexico. Copeia 1933:222.
Linsdale, J.M. 1938. Environmental responses of vertebrates in the Great Basin. American Midland Naturalist 19:1–206.
Linsdale, J.M. 1940. Amphibians and reptiles in Nevada. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 73:197–257.
Linzey, D.W. 1967. Food of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens in central New York. Herpetologica 23:11–17.
Lipps, G. and R.A. Odum. 2001. The struggle to save the Wyoming toad: a case history in captive propagation and reintroduction. International Herpetological Symposium, Detroit, Michigan.
Lipps, G.J., Jr. 2000. A survey of the distribution of Blanchard's cricket frog, Acris creptans blanchardi, in northern Ohio. Report to the Toledo Zoological Society and Ohio Biological Survey, Toledo and Columbus, Ohio.
Lips, K.R. 1991. Vertebrates associated with tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) burrows in four habitats in south-central Florida. Journal of Herpetology 25:477–481.
Lips, K.R. 1998. Decline of a tropical montane amphibian fauna. Conservation Biology 12:106–117.
Lips, K.R. 1999. Mass mortality and population declines of anurans at an upland site in western Panama. Conservation Biology 13:117–125.
Liss, W.J. and G.L. Larson. 1991. Ecological effects of stocked trout on North Cascades naturally fishless lakes. Park Science 11:22–23.
Liss, W.J., G.L. Larson, E. Deimling, L. Ganio, R. Gresswell, R. Hoffman, M. Kiss, G. Lomnicky, C.D. McIntire, R. Truitt and T. Tyler. 1995. Ecological effects of stocked trout in naturally fishless high mountain lakes, North Cascades. National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Technical Report NPS/PNROSU/NRTR-95-03, Seattle, Washington.
Little, E.E., R. Hurtubise and L. Cleveland. 1998. Photoenhanced toxicity of diluent to the frog, Rana sphenocephala. California Department of Fish and Game, Final report, Sacramento, California.
Little, E.L. 1940. Amphibians and reptiles of the Roosevelt Reservoir area, Arizona. Copeia 1940:260–265.
Little, E.L. and J.G. Keller. 1937. Amphibians and reptiles of the Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico. Copeia 1937:216–222.
Little, M.L. 1983. The zoogeography of the Hyla versicolor complex in the central Appalachians, including physiological and morphological analyses. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.
Little, M.L., B.L. Monroe Jr. and J.E. Wiley. 1989. The distribution of the Hyla versicolor complex in the Northern Appalachian Highlands. Journal of Herpetology 23:299–303.
Littlejohn, M.J. 1961. Artificial hybridization between some hylid frogs of the United States. Texas Journal of Science 13:176–184.
Littlejohn, M.J. 1971. A reappraisal of mating call differentiation in Hyla cadavarina (= Hyla californiae) and Hyla regilla. Evolution 25:98–102.
Liu, D., K. Thomson and W.M.J. Strachan. 1981. Biodegradation of carbaryl in simulated aquatic environment. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 27:412–417.
Livezey, R.L. 1950. The eggs of Acris gryllus crepitans Baird. Herpetologica 6:139–140.
Livezey, R.L. 1952. Some observations on Pseudacris nigrita triseriata (Wied) in Texas. American Midland Naturalist 47:372–381.
Livezey, R.L. 1953. Late breeding of Hyla regilla Baird and Girard. Herpetologica 9:73.
Livezey, R.L. 1959. The egg mass and larvae of Plethodon elongatus Van Denburgh. Herpetologica 15:41–42.
Livezey, R.L. 1960. Description of the eggs of Bufo boreas exsul. Herpetologica 16:48.
Livezey, R.L. 1961. Food of adult and juvenile Bufo boreas exsul. Herpetologica 17:266–268.
Livezey, R.L. and H.M. Johnson. 1948. Rana grylio in Texas. Herpetologica 4:164.
Livezey, R.L. and A.H. Wright. 1945. Descriptions of four salientian eggs. American Midland Naturalist 34:701–706.
Livezey, R.L. and A.H. Wright. 1947. A synoptic key to the salientian eggs of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 37:179–222.
Livingston, P.G., C.C. Spencer and B.L. Stuart. 1995. Geographic distribution: Desmognathus aeneus. Herpetological Review 26:207.
Livo, L.J. 1977. An addition to the herpetofauna of Colorado. Colorado Herpetologist 3:1.
Livo, L.J. 1998. Investigations of boreal toad (Bufo boreas) tadpole ecology. Pp. 115–146. In Loeffler, C. (Ed.), Colorado Division of Wildlife, Boreal Toad Research Progress Report, 1995–1997. Denver, Colorado.
Livo, L.J. 1999. The role of predation in the early life history of Bufo boreas in Colorado. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Livo, L.J. and D. Yackley. 1997. Comparison of current with historical elevational range in the boreal toad, Bufo boreas. Herpetological Review 28:143–144.
Livo, L.J., H.M. Smith and D. Chiszar. 1999. County record tables for Colorado amphibians and reptiles as of January, 1999. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Colorado.
Lizana, M. and E.M. Pedraza. 1998. The effects of UV-B radiation on toad mortality in mountainous areas of central Spain. Conservation Biology 12:703–707.
Llewellyn, R.L. and C.R. Peterson. 1998. Distribution, relative abundance, and habitat associations of amphibians and reptiles on Craig Mountain, Idaho. Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Technical Bulletin 98-15, Boise, Idaho.
Loafman, P. and L. Jones. 1996. Natural history notes: Dicamptodon copei (Cope’s giant salamander). Metamorphosis and predation. Herpetological Review 27:136.
Lobdell, R.N. 1936. Field and laboratory studies upon insect pests of south Florida, with particular reference to methods of control. Pp. 123–124. In Annual Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station for 1936. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Lockley, T.C. 1990. Predation on the green treefrog by the star-bellied orb weaver, Acanthepeira stellata (Araneae, Araneidae). Journal of Arachnology 18:359.
Lodato, M.J. 1974. Geographic distribution: Rana heckscheri (river frog). Herpetological Review 5:20.
Löderbusch, W. 1987. Die Amphibien im Kreis Tübingen. Beihefte zu den Veröffentlichungen für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege in Baden-Württemberg 41:279–311.
Lodge, D.M., K.M. Brown, S.P. Klosiewski, R.A. Stein, A.P. Covich, B.K. Leathers and C. Bronmark. 1987. Distribution of freshwater snails: spatial scale and the relative importance of physiocochemical and biotic factors. American Malacological Bulletin 51:73–84.
Lodge, D.M., R.A. Stein, K.M. Brown, A.P. Covich, C. Bronmark, J.E. Garvey and S.P. Klosiewski. 1998. Predicting impact of freshwater exotic species on native biodiversity: challenges in spatial scaling. Australian Journal of Ecology 23:53–67.
Lodwick, L. 1974. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department office memorandum: Bastrop State Park—environmental assessment of the proposed golf course addition, 4 August.
Loeb, M.L.G., J.P. Collins and T.J. Maret. 1994. The role of prey in controlling expression of a trophic polymorphism in Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum. Functional Ecology 8:151–158.
Loeffler, C. (Ed.). 1999. Boreal Toad Recovery Team report on the status and conservation of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas boreas) in the southern Rocky Mountains. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Unpublished report, Denver, Colorado.
Loennberg, E. 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 19:253–254.
Loftus, W.F. and R. Herndon. 1984. Reestablishment of the coqui, Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas, in southern Florida. Herpetological Review 15:23.
Logier, E.B.S. 1932. Some account of the amphibians and reptiles of British Columbia. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 18:311–336.
Loh, J. (Ed.). 2000. Living Planet Report 2000. WWF International, Gland, Switzerland.
Lohman, K. 2002. Annual variation in the density of stream tadpoles in a northern Idaho (USA) watershed. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 28:1–5.
Lohoefener, R. and R.L. Jones. 1991. Status survey of Plethodon fourchensis and P. caddoensis. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Office, Status Survey Report, Jackson, Mississippi.
Lombard, R.E. and D.B. Wake. 1977. Tongue evolution in the lungless salamanders, family Plethodontidae. II. Functional and evolutionary diversity. Journal of Morphology 153:39–79.
Lonard, R.I., J.H. Everitt and F.W. Judd. 1991. Woody plants of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Texas Memorial Museum, Miscellaneous Publications, Number 7, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
Long, A. 1984. Written statement recalling 24 January 1966 meeting with Gosdin and Watson, 30 July.
Long, C.A. 1964. The badger as a natural enemy of Ambystoma tigrinum and Bufo boreas. Herpetologica 20:144.
Long, C.A. 1982. Rare gigantic toads, Bufo americanus, from Lake Michigan isles. University of Wisconsin Museum of Natural History, Reports on the Fauna and Flora of Wisconsin 18:16–19.
Long, D.R. 1987a. A comparison of energy substrates and reproductive patterns of two anurans Acris crepitans and Bufo woodhousei. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 87:81–92.
Long, D.R. 1987b. Reproductive and lipid patterns of a semiarid-adapted anuran, Bufo cognatus. Texas Journal of Science 39:11–13.
Long, D.R. 1989. Energetics and reproduction in female Scaphiopus multiplicatus from western Texas. Journal of Herpetology 23:176–179.
Long, L.E., L.S. Saylor and M.E. Soulé. 1995. A pH/UV-B synergism in amphibians. Conservation Biology 9:1301–1303.
Long, M.L. 1970. Food habits of Rana muscosa (Anura: Ranidae). Herpeton, Journal of the Southwestern Herpetologists Society 5:1–8.
Long, R.K., Jr. 1999. Could toad protection cost landowner rights? Smithville Times, 2 September.
Longbine, T.W., T.W. Reulbach and T.K. Pauley. 1991. Range of Ambystoma texanum and Ambystoma barbouri in West Virginia. West Virginia Academy of Science 63:25.
Longcore, J.E., A.P. Pessier and D.K. Nichols. 1999. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, gen. et sp. nov., a chytrid pathogenic to amphibians. Mycologia 91:219–227.
Longley, G. 1978. Status of Typhlomolge (= Eurycea) rathbuni, the Texas blind salamander. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 2, Endangered Species Report (2), Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Loomis, R.B. 1956. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37:1195–1443.
Loomis, R.B. 1965. The yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii, from the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Herpetologica 21:78–80.
Loomis, R.B. and O.L. Webb. 1951. Eurycea multiplicata collected at the restricted type locality. Herpetologica 7:141–142.
Looney, J. 1973. Anticline and featherhead-cooler. Oklahoma Underground 6:19–24.
Looney, N. and B. Puckett. 1970. The Stansberry-January system. Oklahoma Underground 3:6–11.
Lopez, T.J. and L.R. Maxson. 1990. Natural history notes: Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Polymely. Herpetological Review 21:90.
Loraine, R.K. 1984. Life history notes: Hyla crucifer crucifer (northern spring peeper). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 15:16–17.
Lord, R.D., Jr. and W.B. Davis. 1956. A taxonomic study of the relationship between Pseudacris nigrita triseriata Wied and Pseudacris clarki Baird. Herpetologica 12:115–120.
Loredo, I. and D. Van Vuren. 1996. Reproductive ecology of a population of the California tiger salamander. Copeia 1996:895–901.
Loredo, I., D. Van Vuren and M.L. Morrison. 1996. Habitat use and migration behavior of the California tiger salamander. Journal of Herpetology 30:282–285.
Loring, S.J., W.P. MacKay and W.G. Whitford. 1988. Ecology of small desert playas. Pp. 89–113. In Thames, J.L. and C.D. Ziebell (Eds.), Small Water Impoundments in Semi-arid Regions. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Loske, R. and P. Rinsche. 1985. Die Amphibien und Reptilien des Kreises Soest. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Biologischer Umweltschutz, Bad-Sassendorf-Lohne.
Losos, E. 1993. The future of the U.S. Endangered Species Act. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 8:332–336.
Lotshaw, D.P. 1977. Temperature adaptation and effects of thermal acclimation in Rana sylvatica and Rana catesbeiana. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 56:287–294.
Lotter, F. 1978. Reproductive ecology of the salamander Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia, Urodela, Plethodontidae) in Connecticut. Journal of Herpetology 12:231–236.
Lotter, F. and N.J. Scott. 1977. Correlation between climate and distribution of the color morphs of the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Copeia 1977:681–690.
Loveridge, A. 1936. Scientific results of an expedition to rain forest regions in eastern Africa. VII. Amphibians. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard) 79:369–430.
Loveridge, A. 1942. Scientific results of a fourth expedition to forested areas in East and Central Africa. V. Amphibians. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard) 91:377–436.
Loveridge, A. 1953. Zoological results of a fifth expedition to East Africa. IV. Amphibians from Nyasaland and Tete. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard) 110:325–406.
Loveridge, A. 1959. Notes on the present herpetofauna of Ascension Island. Copeia 1959:69–70.
Lovich, J.E. and W.D. Fisher. 1988. Geographic distribution: Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Herpetological Review 19:17.
Lowcock, L.A. 1994. Biotype, genomotype, and genotype: variable effects of polyploidy and hybridity on ecological partitioning in a bisexual-unisexual community of salamanders. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:104–117.
Lowcock, L.A. and J.P. Bogart. 1989. Electrophoretic evidence for multiple origins for triploid forms in the Ambystoma laterale-jeffersonianum complex. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:350–356.
Lowcock, L.A., H. Griffith and R.W. Murphy. 1991. The Ambystoma laterale-jeffersonianum complex in central Ontario: ploidy structure, sex ratio, and breeding dynamics in a bisexual-unisexual community. Copeia 1991:87–105.
Lowcock, L.A., H. Griffith and R.W. Murphy. 1992. Size in relation to sex, hybridity, ploidy, and breeding dynamics in central Ontario populations of the Ambystoma laterale-jeffersonianum complex. Journal of Herpetology 26:46–53.
Lowcock, L.A., L.E. Licht and J.P. Bogart. 1987. Nomenclature in hybrid complexes of Ambystoma (Urodela: Ambystomatidae): no case for the erection of hybrid species. Systematic Zoology 36:328–336.
Lowe, C.H., Jr. 1950. The systematic status of the salamanders Plethodon hardii, with a discussion of biogeographical problems in Aneides. Copeia 1950:92–99.
Lowe, C.H., Jr. 1954. A new salamander (genus Ambystoma) from Arizona. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 67:243–246.
Lowe, C.H., Jr. 1964. The amphibians and reptiles of Arizona. Pp. 153–174. In Lowe, C.H., Jr. (Ed.), The Vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
Lowe, C.H., Jr. and R.G. Zweifel. 1951. Sympatric populations of Batrachoseps attenuatus and Batrachoseps pacificus in southern California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 50:128–135.
Lowe, J. and N. Nieto. 2003. Natural history notes: Plethodon elongatus (Del Norte salamander). Female-female aggression. Herpetological Review 34:354–355.
Lowery, G.R. 1966. Production and food of cutthroat trout in three Oregon coastal streams. Journal of Wildlife Management 30:754–767.
Luce, B., B. Oakleaf, A. Cerovski, L. Hunter and J. Priday. 1997. Atlas of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians in Wyoming. Wyoming Fish and Game Department, Wildlife Division, Biological Services Section, Lander, Wyoming.
Lucké, B. 1934a. A neoplastic disease of the kidney of the frog, Rana pipiens. II. On the occurrence of metastasis. American Journal of Cancer 22:326–334.
Lucké, B. 1934b. A neoplastic disease of the kidney of the frog, Rana pipiens. American Journal of Cancer 20:352–379.
Lucké, B. 1938a. Carcinoma in the leopard frog: its probable causation by a virus. Journal of Experimental Medicine 68:457–468.
Lucké, B. 1938b. Carcinoma of the kidney of the leopard frog: the occurrence and significance of metastasis. American Journal of Cancer 34:15–30.
Lucké, B. 1952. Carcinoma of the leopard frog: a virus tumor. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 54:1093–1109.
Lucké, B. and H. Schlumberger. 1949. Induction of metastasis of frog carcinoma by increase of environmental temperature. Journal of Experimental Medicine 89:269–278.
Lucker, J.T. 1931. A new genus and a new species of trematode of the family Plagiorchidae. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, Number 79, Washington, D.C.
Ludwig, D.R., M. Redmer, R. Domazlicky, S. Kobal and B. Conklin. 1992. Current status of amphibians and reptiles in DuPage County, Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 85:187–199.
Luepschen, L.K. 1981. Life history notes: Bufo punctatus (red-spotted toad). Larval coloration. Herpetological Review 12:79.
Lumsden, R.D. and J.A. Zischke. 1963. Studies on the trematodes of Louisiana birds. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 22:316–366.
Lun, Z.R. and S.S. Desser. 1996. Analysis of isolates within species of anuran trypanosomes using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Parasitology Research 82:22–27.
Lundelius, E.L., Jr. 1967. Late-Pleistocene and Holocene faunal history of central Texas. Pp. 287–319. In Martin, P.S. and H.E. Wright Jr. (Eds.), Pleistocene Extinctions—The Search for a Cause. Volume 6, Proceedings of the VII Congress of the International Association for Quaternary Research, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Lust, J.M., D.L. Carlson, R. Kowles, L. Rollins-Smith, J.W. Williams III and R.G. McKinnell. 1991. Allografts of tumor nuclear transplantation embryos: differentiation competence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 88:6883–6887.
Lutterschmidt, W.I. and M.L. Thies. 1999. Geographic distribution: Syrrhophus cystignathoides (Rio Grande chirping frog). Herpetological Review 30:51.
Lutterschmidt, W.I., G.A. Marvin and V.H. Hutchison. 1994. Alarm response by a plethodontid salamander (Desmognathus ochrophaeus): conspecific and heterospecific “Schreckstoff." Journal of Chemical Ecology 20:2751–2760.
Lutz, B. 1971. Venomous toads and frogs. Pp. 423–473. In Bucherl, W. and E.E. Buckley (Eds.), Venomous Animals and their Venoms: Volume II. Venomous Vertebrates. Academic Press, New York.
Lykens, D.V. and D.C. Forester. 1987. Age structure in the spring peeper: so males advertise longevity? Herpetologica 43:216–233.
Lynch, J.D. 1964. Two additional predators of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan). Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 4:79.
Lynch, J.D. 1965. The Pleistocene amphibians of Pit II, Arredondo, Florida. Copeia 1965:72–77.
Lynch, J.D. 1970. A taxonomic revision of the leptodactylid frog genus Syrrhophus Cope. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History, Number 20, Lawrence, Kansas.
Lynch, J.D. 1971. Evolutionary relationships, osteology, and zoogeography of leptodactylid frogs. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication, Number 53, Lawrence, Kansas.
Lynch, J.D. 1978. The distribution of leopard frogs (Rana blairi and Rana pipiens) (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae) in Nebraska. Journal of Herpetology 12:157–162.
Lynch, J.D. 1985. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 13:33–57.
Lynch, J.D. and T. Grant. 1998. Dying frogs in western Colombia: catastrophe or trivial observation? Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas, y Naturales 22:149–152.
Lynch, J.E. 1936. Phyllodistomum singulare n. sp., a trematode from the urinary bladder of Dicamptodon ensatus (Eschscholtz), with notes on related species. Journal of Parasitology 22:42–47.
Lynch, J.E., Jr. 1984. Reproductive ecology of Plethodon idahoensis. Master's thesis. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.
Lynch, J.E., Jr. 1987. Field observations of courtship behavior in Rocky Mountain populations of Van Dyke's salamander, Plethodon vandykei, with a description of its spermatophore. Journal of Herpetology 21:337–340.
Lynch, J.F. 1974. Aneides flavipunctatus. Pp. 158.1–158.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Lynch, J.F. 1981. Patterns of ontogenetic and geographic variation in the black salamander, Aneides flavipunctatus (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 324, Washington, D.C.
Lynch, J.F. 1985. The feeding ecology of Aneides flavipunctatus and sympatric plethodontid salamanders in northwestern California. Journal of Herpetology 19:328–352.
Lynch, J.F. and D.B. Wake. 1974. Aneides lugubris. Pp. 159.1–159.2. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, St. Louis, Missouri.
Lynch, M. 1984. Destabilizing hybridization, general-purpose genotypes and geographic parthenogenesis. Quarterly Review of Biology 59:257–290.
Lynn, W.G. and J.N. Dent. 1941. Notes on Plethodon cinereus and Hemidactylium scutatum on Cape Cod. Copeia 1941:113–114.