Rough-skinned Newt, Roughskin Newt, Northern Rough Skin Newt, Crater Lake Newt
© 2017 Heidi Rockney (1 of 126)
Taricha granulosa may be distinguished from T. torosa by the V-shaped pattern of the palatine teeth (compared to Y-shaped), dark lower eyelid, and less protruberant eyes. These species also differ in their defensive posture (see below) (Stebbins 1985).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Canada, United States
U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Alaska, California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington
Canadian province distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: British Columbia
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
While T. granulosa is the most toxic newt in North America, all species of Taricha possess the potent neurotoxin known as tetrodotoxin. This serves the newt as an antipredator defense, and is also harmful to humans (Brodie et al. 1974; Petranka 1998). Despite their toxicity, newts are subject to predation by racoons and garter snakes (Thamnophis.) Thamnophis sirtalis is a specialist predator on newts and has evolved resistance to the tetrodotoxin (Brodie and Brodie 1990; Petranka 1998; Motychak et al. 1999). When harassed, Taricha assume the “unken reflex” where the head is raised, the tail is turned up and held straight over the body, the limbs are extended, and the eyes are closed (Riemer 1958; Brodie 1977). This action exposes the bright aposomatic coloration found on the newt's belly. The exact pattern of this reflex is a species-specific character, distinguishable from sympatric T. torosa, which holds the tail straight, while T. granulosa curls the tip (Stebbins 1985; Petranka 1998).
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
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Brodie, E. D., III, and Brodie, E. D., Jr. (1990). ''Tetrodotoxin resistance in garter snakes: An evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey.'' Evolution, 44, 651-659.
Brodie, E. D., Jr. (1977). "Salamander antipredator postures." Copeia, 1977, 523-535.
Brodie, E. D., Jr., Hensel, J. L., and Johnson, J. A. (1974). ''Toxicity of the urodele amphibians Taricha, Notophthalmus, Cynops, and Paramesotriton (Family Salamandridae).'' Copeia, 1974(2), 506-511.
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Motychak, J. E., E. D. Brodie, Jr., and E. D. Brodie, III (1999). "Evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey: Preadaptation and the evolution of tetrodotoxin resistance in garter snakes." Evolution, 53, 1528-1535.
Nussbaum, R. A., and Brodie, E. D., Jr. (1981). ''Taricha granulosa (Skilton). Rough-skinned Newt.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 272.1-272.4.
Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
Riemer, W. J. (1958). "Variation and systematic relationships within the salamander genus Taricha." University of California Publications in Zoology, 56(3), 301-390.
Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
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Written by Meredith J. Mahoney (molge AT yahoo.com), Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Berkeley
First submitted 2000-07-28
Edited by M. J. Mahoney, Kevin Gin (12/03) (2014-02-02)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2014 Taricha granulosa: Rough-skinned Newt <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/4288> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 19, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 19 Oct 2017.
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