Scinax peixotoi is known only from Queimada Grande Island (24 29' 02.12" S; 46 40' 33.66" W), a 43 ha island about 33 km from the coast of Itanhaém, in the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Brasileiro et al. 2007). The species is found at about 50 m asl (C.A. Brasileiro pers. comm. 2008).
Habitat and Ecology
Most of the area of Queimada Grande island is still covered by native Atlantic forest, especially those parts located in the western slopes and on the mountaintops of the island. The forest on the eastern slope is much shorter because of frequent exposure to strong winds carrying salt from the sea. Approximately one fifth of the area originally covered by forests is now covered by introduced grasses (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
In the course of six visits to the type locality between 2001 and 2005, calling and reproductive behavior were only observed in January 2002. Males call at night from the leaves of ground bromeliads (ca 40-60 cm in diameter) on a rock outcrop. Females are also found on bromeliad leaves. S. peixotoi tend to favour clustered bromeliads. All type specimens were collected at a single large patch of bromeliads at an altitude of ca. 50 m asl (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
The species appears to be relatively rare at Queimada Grande Island. The bromeliads in which this species is found are patchily distributed. The species distribution is likely to be much smaller than the total island area (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
Removal of forest was undertaken by the Brazilian Marine Force several decades ago to reduce the risk of snake encounters associated to forests. Currently, the island's vegetation landscape has not experienced any further changes (C.A. Brasileiro pers. comm. 2008).
Queimada Grande Island is a federally protected area in the Brazilian conservation category "Área de Relevante Interesse Ecológico" (area of relevant ecological interest). This category is equivalent to a Natural Monument (Category III) under the classification of protected area management categories by IUCN. Additional enforcement of the conservation status of the Queimada Grande Island is needed to maintain the only known population of S. peixotoi (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
Critical priorities for conservation of S. peixotoi are to survey the species' aggregations throughout the island, estimate population size, and evaluate the quality and distribution of its habitat (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
In the Scinax perpusillus group. Scinax peixotoi is diagnosed by a combination of morphological characters and distinct advertisement call (Brasileiro et al. 2007).
Cinthia Brasileiro 2008. Scinax peixotoi. In: IUCN 2014