This species can be found from pre-montane cloud forest in southern Peru to
Habitat and Ecology
It is a terrestrial species of lowland tropical moist forest. It is observed in primary forests during the rainy season, mainly in areas that are abundant in bamboo (Guadua sp.), bromeliads, and other phytotelmata (water bearing plants; Brown et al. 2011). Adults frequently climb and jump on leaves, stems, and trunks of herbaceous vegetation up to 4 meters in height. It exhibits biparental care and is likely to have a monogamous mating system (Caldwell and de Oliveira 1999). After one or two embryos hatch, the male carries the tadpoles on its back and deposits each individually in a phytotelm (Brown et al. 2011). Subsequently, the male guides the female to their tadpole, they undergo some courtship behaviour, and the female deposits two (usually) unfertilized trophic eggs, which the tadpole immediately consumes (Brown et al. 2011).
Surveys conducted in 2005 found four individuals at one locality during 25 person/days (von May et al. 2008). However, populations appear to have declined in recent years (von May et al. 2008), although there is no specific information available on the extent of declines.
It is widespread with large areas of suitable habitat remaining. In Brazil there is localized forest conversion for agricultural and livestock purposes. There are threats from the illegal pet trade to this species (Brown et al. 2011).
There are a number of protected areas present within its range and it could possibly occur in some of them. Further research is required into its distribution, ecology, population, as well as the level and impact of harvest use. Enforcement is also needed to curb illegal trade.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Ranitomeya vanzolinii. In: IUCN 2014