Sauter's Brown Frog
The tadpoles are specialized for life in fast-flowing streams; adaptations include having an abdominal sucker (though not as large as those of Amolops sp.), robust caudal musculature and lower fin, a depressed body, and an enlarged oral disc with increased numbers of labial teeth rows (Chou and Lin 1997). The larval body is moderately sized (about 30 mm) and highly pigmented (Matsui and Matsui 1990).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Breeding season occurs in the fall (Lai et al. 2003). Adults can be found in large breeding aggregations usually in fast-flowing streams but has also been found in still-water pools (Lai et al. 2003), and tadpoles have been found in ditches as well (Wu and Kam 2005). Eggs are found under submerged rocks at water depths of 10-15 cm (Lai et al. 2003). Tadpoles are gastromyzophorus (having an abdominal sucker) and are adapted to living in fast-flowing streams (Chou and Lin 1997).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
High-altitude populations of brown frogs (in the middle and eastern parts of the central mountain range of Taiwan) are now regarded as a distinct species, Rana multidenticulata (Chou and Lin 1997; Stuart et al. 2008). However, some debate remains on this topic, as the two species show an intergradation zone on the western side of Taiwan's central mountain range (Chou and Lin 1997a; Jiang-Law and Lee 2009). Jiang-Law and Lee (2009) have noted that lineages inferred from larval morphology, mainly the oral disc structure of tadpoles (Chou and Lin 1997b), do not fully match up to those inferred from molecular methods (Tanaka-Ueno et al. 1998), but conclude this may be due to adaptive variation related to metamorphosis strategies and timing at lower vs. higher elevations.
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Che J., Pang J. F., Zhao E. M., Matsui M., Zhang Y. P. (2007). ''Phylogenetic relationships of the Chinese brown frogs (genus Rana) inferred from partial mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA gene sequences.'' Zoological Science, 24, 71-80.
Chou, W. H., and Lin, I. Y. (1997). ''Geographical variations of Rana sauteri (Anura: Ranidae) in Taiwan.'' Zoological Studies, 36, 201-221.
Chou, W. H., and Lin, J. Y. (1997). ''Description of a new species, Rana multidenticulata (Anura: Ranidae), from Taiwan.'' Zoological Studies, 36, 222-229.
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Jang-Liaw, N.-H., and Lee, T.-H. (2009). ''Intraspecific relationships of populations of the brown frog Rana sauteri (Ranidae) on Taiwan, inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.'' Zoological Science, 26, 608-616.
Jiang, J. P., Fei, L., Ye, C. Y., Zeng, X. M., Zheng, M. Q., Xie, F., and Chen, Y. Y. (1997). ''Studies on the taxonomic relationships of species of Pseudorana and discussions on the phylogenetical relationships with its relative genera (in Chinese with English abstract).'' Cultum Herpetol Sinica, 6(7), 67-74.
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Lai, S. J., Kam, Y. C., and Lin, Y. S. (2003). ''Elevational variation in reproductive and life history traits of Sauter’s frog Rana sauteri Boulenger, 1909 in Taiwan.'' Zoological Studies, 42, 193-202.
Matsui, M., Shimada, T., Liu, M. Z., Manyati, M., Khomsue, W., and Orlov, N. (2006). ''Phylogenetic relationships of Oriental torrent frogs in the genus Amolops and its allies (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38, 659-666.
Matsui, M., Tanaka-Ueno, T., and Gao, Z. F. (2001). ''Phylogenetic relationships of a Chinese frog, Rana zhengi Zhao 1999, inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences (Amphibia, Ranidae).'' Current Herpetology, 20, 77-84.
Matsui, T., and Matsui, M. (1990). ''A new brown frog (genus Rana) from Honshu, Japan.'' Herpetologica, 46, 78-85.
Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Tanaka- Ueno, T., Matsui, M., Chen, S. L., Tanaka, O., Ota, H. (1998). ''Phylogenetic relationships of brown frogs from Taiwan and Japan assessed by mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences (Rana: Ranidae).'' Zoological Science, 15, 283-288.
Wu, C.-S., and Kam, Y.-C. (2005). ''Thermal tolerance and thermoregulation by Taiwanese rhacophorid tadpoles (Buergeria japonica) living in thermal hot springs and streams.'' Herpetologica, 61, 35-46.
Written by Tina Cheng (tinazilla AT gmail.com), San Francisco State University
First submitted 2010-06-24
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2011-04-23)
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