Japumayo Andes frog
Species Description: Catenazzi, A. and Ttito, A. 2016. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes. PeerJ 4:e1807; DOI 10.7717/peerj.1807
© 2016 Alessandro Catenazzi (1 of 11)
Members of P. chirihampatu are distinguished from most species in this genus by possessing a tubercle-like fold in the inner edge of the tarsus. Within the Psychrophrynella genus, only P. bagrecito and P. usurpator, exhibit this characteristic. These two species are also geographically the closest species to P. chirihampatu. However, P. bagrecito has a sickle-shaped tubercle-like fold along with different ventral coloration that distinguishes it from P. chirihampatu. Psychrophrynella chirihampatu is morphologically most similar to P. usurpator but exhibit a few differences. Whereas P. chirihampatu has a yellow coloration in the ventral region of the body with brown spots, P. usurpator has brown or tan coloration on the ventral region of the body with tan spots. Furthermore, finger 1 is shorter than finger 2 in P. chirihampatu, but about the same length in P. usurpator, the maximum snout-vent length in P. chirihampatu is 27.5 mm whereas the maximum snout-vent length in P. usurpator is 30.5 mm, and P. chirihampatu has a slimmer head compared to P. usurpator, which has a wider, shorter head. Lastly, P. chirihampatu can be differentiated from both P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by its advertisement call, with the former having a single note call (see "Life History" section) while the two latter have multiple note calls (Catenazzi and Ttito 2016).
In preservative, the dorsal region of the body has a gray-tan coloration with a dark brown X marking on the middorsum. There is a dark and narrow interorbital bar that has a cream stripe border on the anterior edge. There is also a dark brown subocular spot and a dark brown stripe leading from the tip of the snout to the top of the insertion of the forelimb both of which are bordered by a narrow cream white lines. From the forelimb to the hindlimb, there is a broken dark dorsolateral line that delineates the dorsum and the flank. The dorsal surfaces of the hindlimbs have dark transverse bars. The anterior portion of the throat is brown and becomes pale gray with brown flecks as it extends posteriorly down the chest and belly where it then becomes yellow on the most posterior end of the ventrum and on the ventral surfaces of the limbs. The posterior side of the thighs are brown and have a pale strip connecting the inside of the knee to the cloaca. The palms and plantars are brown and the fingers and toes are cream. The iris is gray. In life, the coloration is very similar to the color in preservative. The differences are that the dorsal coloration can range from beige to grayish-tan to dark brown with red flecks, the cream lines on the head are bronze in life, the throat is reddish-brown with yellow or orange flecks, the chest and belly range from yellow with reddish-brown, brown, grey with yellow flecks, the ventral surfaces of the limbs may be yellow or orange with reddish-brown, brown, or gray flecks, and the fingers and toes are reddish-brown at the base and yellow at tips (Catenazzi and Ttito 2016).
Dorsal coloration varies from beige to grayish-tan and dark brown. The X mark is less noticeable in darker individuals and individuals may have additional dark dorsal markings. Ventral coloration also varies from yellow to orange and flecks on the ventral surfaces can be reddish-brown, brown, or grey. There is variation in the quality of the dorsolateral line between the limbs ranging from continuous to broken to completely missing. Some individuals have a yellow or orange mid-dorsal line that extends from the snout to the cloaca and then makes its way to the surface of the posterior thigh. Some individuals also have a yellow or orange mid-ventral line that extends from the snout to the cloaca (Catenazzi and Ttito 2016).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The holotype’s advertisement call was recorded at mid-day at an air temperature of 11.6oC on the day of his capture. During a sequence of 26 calls with 9.43 calls/minute the call structure varied such that call notes increased from 57 to 68 in the first 10 calls then declined to 10 notes/call by the 26th. Calls had 10 – 68 single-pulse notes, a rate of 8.7 – 16.55 notes/second, and a duration range of 1.140 – 4.524 ms. The peak frequency range was 2,584 – 2,885 Hz and increased over the call with the first three notes averaging 2,702 ± 38 Hz and the last three notes averaging 2,748 ± 50 Hz. Amplitude and note duration also increased over the course of the call with amplitude increasing by 400% by the last three notes and note duration going from 2.6 ± 0.7 ms during the first three notes to 7.8 ± 1.3 ms during the last three notes (Catenazzi and Ttito 2016).
An unattended nest with 11 eggs was found under a rock at the type locality during initial surveys of this species. The eggs averaged 4.5 mm in diameter. Ten gravid females were also found with varying maturity of their eggs in their ovaries. Females had a range of 7 - 12 eggs and one female had mature eggs that ranged in diameter from 3.5 – 4.6 mm. The species has direct development (Catenazzi and Ttito 2016).
Trends and Threats
Based on genetic distances (uncorrected p-distances) from 16S rRNA mitochondrial sequence data and overall morphology, P. chirihampatu was assigned to the genus Psychrophrynella. Psychrophrynella chirihampatu’s currently known closest relative is P. usurpator, followed by P. guillei and P. wettsteini (Catenazzi and Ttito 2016).
The name "chirihampatu" is derived from the Quechua words "hampa’tu", meaning "toad", and "chiri", meaning "cold" to indicate that the species is a toad living in cold waters. It is, additionally, a wordplay on the genus name, which also means the same thing in Greek (Catenazzi and Ttito 2016).
Catenazzi, A., Lehr, E., Rodriguez, L., and Vredenberg, V. (2011). ''Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the collapse of anuran species richness and abundance in the Upper Manu National Park, southeastern Peru.'' Conservation Biology, 5, 382-391.
Catenazzi, A.,Ttito, A. (2016). ''A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.'' PeerJ , 4, e1807.
Warne, R., LaBumbard, B., LaGrange, S., Vredenburg, V.T., Catenazzi, A. (2016). ''Co-infection by chitrid fungus and Ranaviruses in wild and harvested frogs in the Tropical Andes.'' PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0145864.
Written by Andrew Rubio (Andrew.rubio AT siu.edu), Southern Illinois University Carbondale
First submitted 2016-06-27
Edited by Ann T. Chang (2016-07-06)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2016 Psychrophrynella chirihampatu: Japumayo Andes frog <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/8455> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Aug 22, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 22 Aug 2017.
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