Llanganates Rain Frog; Cutin de los Llanganates
Species Description: Navarrete MJ, Venegas PJ, Ron SR (2016) Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park in Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae). ZooKeys 593: 139–162. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.593.8063
© 2016 Santiago Ron (1 of 1)
The ulnas have subconical, low tubercles. There is a similar tubercle on the elbow. The hands of the males did not have nuptial pads, but had low, weakly defined palmer tubercles. The outer palmer tubercle is divided by a notch and is approximately twice the size of the oval thenar tubercle. Indistinct supernumerary tubercles can be found at the base of each finger. Finger I is shorter than Finger II. All fingers have narrow lateral fringes and well-defined, low, round subarticular tubercles. The fingers also have discs that differ by finger; the disc is rounded on finger I, expanded on finger II, and broadly expanded and truncated on fingers III and IV. The pads of the fingers have distinct circumferential grooves. The hindlimbs are slender with the foot being longer than the tibia. The upper surfaces of the hindlimbs have minute conical and subconical tubercles but the posterior surfaces of the thighs are smooth and the ventral surfaces are weakly areolate. The knee and heel have low conical tubercles. There is a weakly defined, long inner tarsal fold. The inner metatarsal tubercle is low, elliptical, rounded and twice the size of the outer metatarsal tubercle, which is oval. The ventral surface of the foot is weakly tuberculated with well-defined, round subarticular tubercles. The toes are unwebbed and like the fingers have narrow, lateral fringes and discs that are similar in size, shape, and grooves. The discs are most noticeable on toes IV and V. The relative toe lengths are I < II < III < V < IV (Navarrete et al. 2016).
The skin on the dorsum and flanks is textured with minute conical tubercles. The body does not have dorsolateral or discoidal folds. The skin on the throat, chest, belly, and ventral surfaces of the thighs are weakly areolate. The belly also has scattered enlarged warts. The skin around the cloaca is tuberculated and there are two enlarged tubercles on either side of the cloaca below the short cloacal sheath (Navarrete et al. 2016).
Despite the undetermined morphological synapomorphies of Pristimantis, Pristimantis llanganati has characteristic morphology of most Pristimantis, involving the presence of T-shaped terminal phalanges, toes that lack membranes, and the fifth toe being longer than the third. Pristimantis llanganati can most easily be differentiated from its Andean and Colombian counterparts, with the exception of Pristimantis chloronotus, Pristimantis colonensis, and Pristimantis eriphus, by the presence of the following traits: a distinctly greenish brown or mossy dorsum, evident conical tubercles situated on top of eyelids, heels, and margins of the tarsus, groin area exhibiting a white or tan coloration with evident black or dark brown diagonal stripes, white and brown or black bars overlaying the posterior surfaces of thighs and obscured shank areas. Pristimantis llanganati and P. eriphus are the most similar in that both species exhibit greenish-brown coloration and a tuberculate dermis. However, P. eriphus can be distinguished from P. llanganati by the former having brown vertebral bands or dark brown chevrons on the scapular regions and greenish coppery or red iris that lack reticulations. Pristimantis chloronotus and P. colonensis can primarily be differentiated from P. llanganati by their sinuous ridged paravertebral folds. Pristimantis chloronotus can be further differentiate by having upper eyelids covered in small conical tubercles and P. colonensis can be further differentiated by having dark brown posterior surfaces with cream or white oblique lines and a yellowish gold iris. Pristimantis incanus is similar to P. llanganatis in coloration and tubercle distribution, but can be differentiated by the former having glossy white points on the groins, posterior surface of the thighs, and concealed surfaces of the shanks. Additionally, male P. incanus have vocal slits (Navarrete et al. 2016).
In life, the coloration of P. llanganati is based on photo vouchers. It exhibits an olive green dorsum with a X-like mark in the middle of the dorsum or a light brown spot on the scapular area and a diamond-like dark brown blotch and flecks. The limbs are banded with transversal dark brown bars, while the posterior and anterior areas of the thighs and the unexposed surfaces of the shanks are white with dark brown bars. The top of the head is light brown to brown with a thick, dark brown bar that bisects the orbital structures. The sides of the head are greenish brown and are marked with a dark brown canthal stripe, two thick dark brown labial bars, and a dark brown supratympanic fold. The area from the flanks to the groin is white or cream-colored and patterned with wide, dark brown diagonal strips. With exception to the ventral surfaces, the hindlimbs are white with dark brown transversal bars. The throat and chest are a muddled cream color with brown speckling. The belly and ventral surface of the thighs are also a muddled cream but with brown flecks. The ventral surfaces of the tarsus, forelimbs, palms, and soles are brown and have minute cream flecks. The iris is copper patterned with dark brown reticulations and containing a reddish mid-horizontal band. In preservative, the dorsal color becomes greenish grey and a brown U-shaped mark is visible on the head. The X-like mark becomes reddish brown and the blotches and flecks fade to a lighter brown. The canthal stripe, labial bars, and supratympanic fold maintains their dark brown color. The flanks, and hindlimbs, also maintain their color. The ventrum becomes creamy brown. The palms and soles become brownish cream (Navarrete et al. 2016).
The sample size for P. llanganati at the time of its description was too small to determine variation or sexual dimorphism. However, the female specimen was larger than the males and had a grayish cream dorsum. Juveniles examined had similar coloration to males, but with less defined dorsal marks. One juvenile had a dark brown ventrum (Navarrete et al. 2016).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Pristimantis llanganati is named for the Kichwa word “Llanganati” which roughly translates to “beautiful hill.” The species epithet, "llanganati" also references Llanganates National Park in which the species was first discovered (Navarrete et al. 2016).
Navarrete, M.J., Venegas, P.J., Ron S.R. (2016). ''Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park In Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae).'' Zookeys, 593, 139-162.
Written by Lena Dassonville and Ann T. Chang (lenadassonville AT gmail.com), Bard College at Simon’s Rock and UC Berkeley
First submitted 2017-01-30
Edited by Ann T. Chang (2017-02-01)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2017 Pristimantis llanganati: Llanganates Rain Frog; Cutin de los Llanganates <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/8480> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed May 22, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 22 May 2017.
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