This species is found along forested streams in Antioquia, Tolima, and Caldas Departments, on the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central, in Colombia, from 1,100-1,850 m asl. The type locality is in San Carlos (Lynch and Rueda-Almonacid 1999). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 8,089 km
Habitat and Ecology
This is a forest species usually found along the edge of streams that is associated with naturally occurring open areas in primary and secondary forests. Gallery forest cover is needed to keep humidity high; hence, it is very sensitive to any disturbance of its habitat. It breeds by direct development.
There is no information on current population trends. The species is restricted to remnant forest habitat throughout its range, and there is lack of habitat connectivity between known locations attributed to the inhospitable nature of the surrounding agricultural matrix; therefore, it is assumed that the population is severely fragmented (C. Vásquez-Almazán pers. comm. 2014).
The main threat to this species is habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation for agricultural development, mining activities and the planting of illegal crops. Some other direct-developing species that are associated with high-elevation streams have undergone dramatic declines and disappearances, possibly linked to chytridiomycosis, so the status of this species should be monitored carefully.
The species occurs in the La Forzosa Reserve and the Ranita Dorada Amphibian Reserve, which was established in 2008 (O. Cortés pers. comm. 2014). The parts of its range outside of protected areas have largely been deforested. Additional habitat protection and continued enforcement of the protected areas will be important for maintaining critical forest habitat within the range. Research is needed to better understand its distribution, population status and current threats.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Pristimantis fallax. In: IUCN 2014