The species is known from the vicinity of Murucusa, Municipality of Petit (11 02’ N, 69 35’ W), 550 masl, and Curimagua, District of Petit, spurs of Sierra de San Luís, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. This species may be endemic to the low, dry lands of the Sierra de San Luis and vicinity, but it also could be more widespread through similar habitats in northwestern Venezuela in the states of Falcón, Lara, Yaracuy and Zulia (Barrio-Amorós, 2006). It could potentially be constrained by the dry zone of the Barquisimeto depression towards the southwest and the Yaracuy depression towards the northeast (C. Barrio-Amorós, pers. comm. 2008).
Habitat and Ecology
P. neildi is known only from xeric localities on a spur of the Sierra de San Luis. The dominant vegetation consists of low trees (to 8 m) called locally “cujíes”, spiny bushes, and cacti, composing a dry semi-deciduous dwarf forest (Barrio-Amorós, 2006).
Egg clutches were observed in August 2001 at the type locality. Eggs were encased in one or two leaves. Nests were found to contain 255 and 282 white eggs, surrounded by transparent jelly capsules. Adult males called from bushes at heights of 1.5 m to 4 m, around ponds. Amplectant pairs were observed in vegetation at various heights above water. Other species of anurans common in savannas and xeric habitats of northern South America that were found in the pond where P. neildi was breeding include Chaunus marinus, C. granulosus complex, Dendropsophus microcephalus, D. minutus, Hypsiboas crepitans, Scinax “x-signatus”, Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops, and Leptodactylus insularum (Barrio-Amorós, 2006). The call is described in Barrio-Amorós (2006).
There was as considerable number of individuals where the species was found; however, like other species in the genus, it is not necessarily a dominant species (C. Barrio-Amorós, pers. comm. 2008).
No major threats were observed. Although the drying out of ponds could comprise a potential threat, it is unlikely that this would happen as they are used by cattle in the region (C. Barrio-Amorós, pers. comm. 2008).
No conservation measures are known for this species. By conserving ponds the species is thus conserved (C. Barrio-Amorós, pers. comm. 2008).
In the Phyllomedusa tarsius group. It is differentiated from other species of the group by a combination of morphological characters and advertisement call features (Barrio-Amorós, 2006).
Cesar Barrio-Amorós 2008. Phyllomedusa neildi. In: IUCN 2014