© 2004 David M. Green (1 of 3)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: New Zealand
Terrestrial; can be found in moist forests, grassy clearings, ridges, and sub-alpine scrub around 200-1000 m altitude. Nocturnal; likes to take shelter under stone and logs by day (Gill and Whitaker 1996).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Defense: Can remain motionless for long periods of time. Assumes stiff-legged stance, rearing up and extending the legs (Green 1988).
Reproduction: Amplexus takes place in shallow depressions beneath logs, where it’s cool and moist. Egg clusters are later laid in strings. Diameters of egg capsules range from 8 to 11 mm. Eggs are yolky, unpigmented, and enclosed in clear capsules comprised of an outer, tougher, and initially somewhat adhesive coat, a middle gelatinous layer, and an inner vitelline membrane. Sometimes frogs, particularly males, occupy the oviposition sites for weeks or longer prior to the laying of eggs. Takes froglets at least 3 to 4 years to reach maturity. In their development, they have narrow tail fins, and only the base of the forelimbs is covered by the gular fold (Bell 1978).
Bell, B.D. (1978). ''Observations on the ecology and reproduction of the New Zealand native frogs.'' Herpetologica, 34, 340-354.
Gill, B., and Whitaker, T. (1996). New Zealand Frogs and Reptiles. David Bateman Limited, New Zealand.
Green, D. M. (1988). ''Antipredator behavior and skin glands in the New Zealand native frogs, genus Leiopelma.'' New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 15, 39-46.
Written by Chih Wang (chihwang AT uclink.berkeley.edu), AmphibiaWeb
First submitted 2003-04-22
Edited by Updated by Ann T. Chang (2013-06-05)
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