AMPHIBIAWEB
Kaloula indochinensis
family: Microhylidae
subfamily: Microhylinae
 
Species Description: Chan KO, Blackburn DC, Murphy RW, Stuart BL, Emmett DA, Ho CT, Brown RM 2013 A new species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Kaloula from eastern Indochina. Herpetologica 69: 329-341.
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status
CITES No CITES Listing
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

 

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Description
Kaloula indochinensis is a stout-bodied frog with a snout-vent length range of 44.1 - 53.7 mm in males and 39.4 - 53.4 mm in females. The head is wider than it is long. The pupil is circular. The snout is truncated dorsally, rounded laterally, and protrudes beyond the lower jaw. The eyes are large, protrude slightly in the dorsal view, and are smaller in diameter than the snout. The pupils are circular. The cathus rostralis is slightly rounded. The lores are somewhat concave. The nostrils are located slightly below the canthus, almost on the end of the snout, and open laterally. The lips and interorbital region are flat. The tympanum is indistinct and has a supratymanic fold extending from the posterior corner of the eyelid to just above and before the forelimb insertion. The fold is continuous with a distinct sueraxillary fold (Chan et al. 2013).

The dorsal skin is smooth, with evenly spaced, shallow, rounded tubercles that are most evident in the temporal area. The ventral surface is mildly granular, except for the throat, which is distinctly granular. Sternal fold made of loose skin is present over the single vocal sac (Chan et al. 2013).

The robust forelimbs are relatively slender. The unwebbed fingers have large, rounded finger discs that expand transversely and lack grooves. The relative finger lengths are 3 > 4 > 2 > 1. Large round subarticular tubercles can be found on each digit, with one each on fingers 1 and 2 and two on fingers 3 and 4. Thre is also a large, long, inner metacarpal tubercle and a smaller, flat, oval outer metacarpal tubercle, which is lightly divided. The robust hindlimbs are short .The toes end in small round discs with basal webbing between toes 1 through 3 and between 4 and 5. Webbing between toes 3 and 4 extends higher up each finger to the subarticular tubercles. The relative toe lengths are 4 > 5 > 3 > 2 > 1. All toes have at least one distinct subarticular tubercles, with the fourth toe having two subarticular tubercles in most individuals. The inner metatarsal tubercle is elongated but shorter than the first toe and is slightly raised. The outer metatarsal tubercle is smaller, round, and also slightly raised. There are no nuptial pads (Chan et al. 2013).

Kaloula indochinensis is similar in appearance to K. baleata, but the finger discs are much more expanded; the third finger disc has a width of 2.5 - 3.7 mm as opposed to 1.4 - 2.5 mm in K. baleata. The inner metatarsal tubercle is shorter (2.1 - 3.0 mm), and the inner and outer metatarsal tubercles are only slightly raised. The fourth toe has two, not three, subarticular tubercles in most individuals. Kaloula indochinensis can be further differentiated from K. assamensis, K. aureate, K. borealis, K. conjuncta, K. alingensis, K. kokacii, K. mediolineata, K. picta, K. pulchra, K. ridida, K. rugifera, K. verrucosa, and K. walteri by a combination of the snout-vent length range, having large transversely expanded discs on the fingertips, having only two subarticular tubercles on the fourth toe, an elongated and raised inner metatarsal tubercle, and orange-yellow patches on the sides of the neck behind the eyes, on the chest, and in the inguinal region (Chan et al. 2013).

In life, Kaloula indochinensis overall body color is dark brown to gray-brown, with large, orange-yellow patches posterior to the eyes on the neck and on the axillary and inguinal regions. The orange-yellow coloration can also be found on the outer side of the upper arm, outer side thigh, and at the joints of he limbs. There are also black patches between the eyes, on the shoulders, sacrum, and limbs. There are dorsal white spots that correspond to tubercles and are most evident in the temporal region, flanks, vent, and dorsal surfaces of the limbs. The tops of the hands and the feet, and the vent have white reticulations. The gular region is black and finely spotted with white. In preservative, the body color fades to gray-brown with the ventrum being a lighter shade of brown. Additionally the black patches become dark brown, and white markings become creamy (Chan et al. 2013).

Some individuals have a third small subarticular tubercle. Dorsal surfaces can be darker; patches can be less distinct; dorsal tubercles can be more prominent. There also appears to be minor sexual dimorphism in color characterized by males having black, granular throats and females having brownish, smoother throats (Chan et al. 2013)

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam

 

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Kaloula indochinensis has been observed in five disjunct populations in central and southern Vietnam, eastern Cambodia, as well as southern and central Laos. It occurs at elevations from 100 to 1000 m, and was mostly found in ephemeral ponds during nighttime. It was also observed on the ground, or on rocks and trees up to two meters above ground (Chan et al. 2013).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Kaloula indochinensis were only found during rainy nights; the males call in loud choruses from ephemeral pools surround by tall grass or from rocks and trees up to 2 meters high. Amplexus takes place during storms in leaf litter near temporary water. They were also found at the transition between deciduous and lowland evergreen forests (Chan et al. 2013).

Trends and Threats
There are currently no known threats.

Comments
The species authority is: Chan, Blackburn, Murphy, et al. (2013) A species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Kaloula from eastern Indochina. Herpetologica 69(3): 329-341.

Kaloula indochinensis is sister to the K. baleata group. It belongs to family Microhylidae (Chan et al. 2013).

The frog is named after Indochina, the region in which it occurs (Chan et al. 2013).

Kaloula indochinensis may live in sympatry with K. pulchra and K. mediolineata (Chan et al. 2013).

References

Chan, K.O., Blackburn, D.C., Murphy, R.W., Stuart, B.L., Emmett, D.A., Ho, C.T., Brown, R.M. (2013). ''A New Species of Narrow-Mouthed Frog of the Genus Kaloula from Eastern Indochina.'' Herpetologica, 69(3), 329-341.



Written by Bryan H. Bach (bryanbach AT gmail.com), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2015-05-22

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2015 Kaloula indochinensis <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/8065> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 20, 2017.



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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 20 Oct 2017.

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