Lesser Toad, Kodok Puru Kerdil
© 2009 Dr. Peter Janzen (1 of 5)
The tadpoles are small, with the tail usually no longer than double the head plus body length, and a denticle formula of I+1-1/III. Papillae are confined to the corner of the mouth, and the mouth is not adapted for stream-dwelling (Iskandar, 1998). Inthara et al. (2005; p. 78) provide a drawing of the larval mouthparts of Bufo parvus compared to eight other tadpole species of Thailand.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand
Malaysian region distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peninsular Malaysia
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Bufo parvus is toxic, with skin extract doses of 100 mg/mouse causing locomotor difficulties, prostration convulsions, and death in 2 hours (Daly et al., 2004). This frog is very similar to Bornean populations of B. biporcatus in morphology and behavior (Inger et al., 1974). Bufo parvus can be distinguished by its smaller size and by the lack of tubercles behind the parotoid gland (present in B. biporcatus), as well as by having a pair of symmetrical black blotches on the back (absent in B. biporcatus) (Iskandar, 1998).
The species name uses the Latin word parvus, meaning small (Iskandar, 1998).
Daly, J. W., Noimai, N., Kongkathip, B., Kongkathip, N., Wilham, J. M., Garraffo, H. M., Kaneko, T., Spande, T. F., Ninit, Y., Nabhitabhata, J., and Chan-Ard, T. (2004). ''Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.'' Toxicon, 44, 805-815.
Inger, R. F., Voris, H. K., and Voris, H. H. (1974). ''Genetic variation and population ecology of some Southeast Asian frogs of the genus Bufo and Rana.'' Biochemical Genetics, 12(2), 121-145.
Inthara, C., Lauhachinda, V., Nabhitabhata, J., Chuaynkorn, Y., and Kumtong, P. (2005). ''Mouth part structures and distribution of some tadpoles from Thailand.'' The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal, 1, 55-78.
Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
Written by Janel Marcelino (janel_m AT berkeley.edu), AmphibiaWeb intern
First submitted 2006-04-06
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2008-01-01)
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