This species is known from humid premontane slopes of the Atlantic versant of the Cordillera de Talamanca in south-eastern Costa Rica and adjacent north-eastern Panama, from 1,051-2,040m asl (Savage 2002; Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It seems likley that the species is widespread in appropriate habitats along the Atlantic slopes in areas between Turriabla, Cartago, Costa Rica and Cerro Pata de Macho, Bocas del Toro, Panama (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
Habitat and Ecology
It is a diurnal, species of deep forest (Savage 2002), that inhabits the deep leaf-litter of primary, or mature secondary forest with mature canopies, cloudforest or highland oak forest (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It is possible that this species undergoes direct development, however this requires further investigations (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
Vaughn and Mendelson (2007), mention that this is generally a rare toad with a few individuals being recorded along trails. However it is reported to be generally common in Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, by other researchers (Gerado Chaves pers. comm. 2007). It has been collected only a few times. Small aggregations of between two end eight animals, a few metres apart, have been observed (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
There are no known threats to this species; the Costa Rican part of the species range is almost all within well protected areas.
Although there are no specific conservation measures in place this species has been recorded from Parque Internacional La Amistad (Panama), and Parque Nacional Tapantí and Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica).
Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C., Fuenmayor, Q., Young, B.E., Kubicki, B. & Bolaños, F. 2008. Incilius epioticus. In: IUCN 2014