AMPHIBIAWEB
Hyloxalus craspedoceps
family: Dendrobatidae
subfamily: Hyloxalinae
 
Species Description: Duellman, W.E. 2004. Frogs of the genusColostethus(Anura; Dendrobatidae) in the Andes of northern Peru.Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum of the University of Kansas35: 1-49.

© 2010 Division of Herpetology, University of Kansas (1 of 2)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status
CITES No CITES Listing
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

 

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Description
In this small species of Hyloxalus males attain a snout-vent length of 19.1 mm and females reach 20.5 mm. The discs on the fingers and toes are expanded, with those on the fingers about half again the width of the penultimate phalanx and those on the toes about twice the width of the penultimate phalanx. Finger I is longer than Finger II, and Finger III is not swollen in males. Lateral fringes are absent on the fingers and toes; outer and inner tarsal folds are absent, but a low, indistinct outer tarsal tubercle is present. Webbing is absent between the toes. Yellowish tan dorsolateral stripes are distinct on the head and diffuse on the body; pale oblique lateral stripes are diffuse and present only in the groin; ventrolateral stripes are absent. The dorsum is brown. The flanks are creamy tan with irregular brown spots, and the sides of the head are dark brown above and dull yellow below. The dorsal surfaces of the upper arms are dull yellow, and the dorsal surfaces of the digital scutes are gray, The belly is creamy yellow with a greenish tint, and the ventral surfaces of the limbs are dull yellow. In males, the throat and chest are brown. The iris is coppery bronze with a median horizontal dark brown streak. A median lingual process is absent. The testes are white.

A tadpole in Stage 34 has a body length of 10.0 mm and a total length of 25.3 mm; the body is ovoid, wider than high. The snout is rounded in dorsal view and in profile. and the moderately large eyes are situated dorsally, directed dorsolaterally, and not visible from below. The spiracle is sinistral, with the tube being short and attached to the body throughout its length. The spiracular opening is directed posteriorly just below the midline at about the midlength of the body. The cloacal tube is dextral, short, cone-shaped, and attached to the ventral fin. Caudal musculature is robust, equal in height throughout the proximal one-third of the tail, and gradually diminishes to a pointed tip. The dorsal fin originates on the caudal musculature, is highest at about two-thirds the length of the tail, and gradually diminishes to an acutely rounded tip. The ventral fin originates on the body and is highest at about three-fifths the length of the tail. The oral disc is directed anteroventrally, with the median half of anterior labium being bare; elsewhere the labia bear a single row of moderately long, pointed marginal papillae. The labia have shallow lateral folds. Submarginal papillae are absent. The jaw sheaths are slender and finely serrate. The anterior sheath is in the form of a broad arch, while the posterior sheath is broadly V-shaped. The labial tooth row formula is 2(1)/3, with row A2 slightly longer than the other rows. In life, the body and tail are gray. In preservative, the dorsum and sides of the body are brown, the belly is cream, the caudal musculature is pale creamy tan with small, irregular brown spots, and the caudal fins are translucent with brown spots; guanophores are scattered on the body and tail.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peru

 

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This species is known only from the type locality at the eastern base of the northern part of Cordillera Central in northern Peru. The type locality is a stream in a shallow ravine in cutover humid tropical forest. The frogs were active on wet boulders in the stream by day.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
This species exhibits parental care. One male with a snout-vent length of 19.1 mm was found transporting seven tadpoles on its back. Back-riding tadpoles had body lengths of 3.7–4.8 mm (x = 4.36) and total lengths of 11.0–12.9 mm (x = 11.91). These young tadpoles are dark brown with cream venters and have jaw sheaths and a labial tooth row formula of 2(1)/2.

Older, free-living tadpoles in Stages 25–35 were found in pools in a rocky stream.

Comments
This species was transferred to the genus Hyloxalus from the genus Allobates by Santos et al. (2009).

References

Duellman, W. E. (2004). ''Frogs of the genus Colostethus (Anura; Dendrobatidae) in the Andes of northern Peru.'' Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum, University of Kansas, 35, 1-49.

Santos, J. C., Coloma, L. A., Summers, K., Caldwell, J. P., Ree, R., and Cannatella, D. C. (2009). ''Amazonian amphibian diversity is primarily derived from late Miocene Andean lineages.'' PLoS Biology, 7(3), e1000056.



Written by William Duellman (duellman AT ku.edu), University of Kansas
First submitted 2004-12-10
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2009-09-21)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2009 Hyloxalus craspedoceps <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/6356> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 20, 2017.



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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 20 Oct 2017.

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