Quang's Tree Frog
Species Description: Rowley JJL, Dau VQ, Nguyen TT, Cao TT, Nguyen SV 2011 A new species of Gracixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) with a hyperextended vocal repertoire from Vietnam. Zootaxa 3125:22-38.
© 2012 Jodi J. L. Rowley (1 of 2)
Gracixalus quangi has a small, flattened body, with a snout-vent length of 21.4 - 24.5 mm in males, 26.8 - 27.3 mm in females. Small, scattered asperities are present on the dorsum, most concentrated on the eyelids. The ventral surface of the throat and chest is smooth, while the thighs and stomach region is roughly granulated. The snout of G. quangi is pointed and triangular in shape, and the head is as wide as it is long. The nostrils protrude slightly, are oval in shape, and are located closer to the tip of the snout than to the eyes. The interorbital portion of the head is convex in shape, and the pupils are horizontal. The diameter of the tympanum is around one-third that of the eyes, and the tympanic rim is elevated relative to the surrounding skin. The tongue is attached anteriorly in the mouth, and vomerine teeth are absent. Distinct, ovular vocal sacs open at the base of the jaw, and a subgular vocal sac is visible. The forelimbs are somewhat robust, and have a relative finger length (from shortest to longest) of I, II, IV, III. The fingers have large, well developed disks which show distinct circumarginal grooves, but no webbing. Subarticular tubercles are prominent, and males have nuptial pads on the first finger. Toe length increases in the following order: I, II, III, V, IV. The toes have disks with circumarginal grooves similar to the fingers, but slightly smaller. The feet are moderately webbed. There is a projection of approximately 1 mm located at the tibiotarsal articulation (Rowley et al. 2011).
Gracixalus quangi has several traits which can be used to distinguish it from other rhacophorid frogs. G. quangi has a pointed, triangular snout and is small compared to its close relatives (snout vent length of less than 25 mm). It has translucent green skin with opaque yellow coloration behind the insertions of the arms and on the anterior of the thighs, as well as brown-black spots on the flanks and the undersides of the thighs. G. quangi also has a tibiotarsal projection (Rowley et al. 2011).
Coloration: In life, the dorsum of G. quangi is olive green, with a brighter pale green seen on the upper arm and fingertips. Large black spots form a line laterally separating the olive dorsum from the turquoise and yellow regions. The ventral surface of the body is an opaque white which fades into a translucent pale green towards the sides. The ventral surface of the limbs is a translucent light green, with brown spotting underneath the thighs. A brown interorbital bar extends over the eyelids, and there is a faint brown "X" on the back. The iris is bronze, with a network of fine black reticulations. The shanks have a faint brown barring as well. The inner surfaces of the thigh and groin are bright yellow, as is the area behind the insertion of the arm. The inner thighs are spotted with black. A black supratympanic line extends from above the eyes to the axilla on each side, covering one third of the tympanum. An opaque, pale turquoise coloration is located under the supratympanic fold, extending along the lateral surface of the body, and punctuated by black spots posteriorly. Toes II-V are a dark blackish green, with black webbing (Rowley et al. 2011).
In preservation, the dorsal surface is a pale yellowish brown, with the upper eyelids appearing black. The ventral surfaces are a pale yellowish cream with lateral brown spots still present. What was turquoise and yellow on lateral surfaces in life appear as a pale cream. Previously, brown markings in life still show up as brown. The lower forelimb, fingers III-IV, the heels, and toes II-V appear brown. Toe webbing still appears black (Rowley et al. 2011).
Variation: Dorsal coloration may vary from pale to dark green, olive, or brown. Coloration of the feet varies from pale green or brown to black. The number and size of the lateral black spots vary between individuals. Females are larger and more robust than males (Rowley et al. 2011).
Tadpole morphology: Tadpoles were found within eggs up until developmental stage 24. Tadpoles at stage 24 have a total length of about 10 mm (head length of 3.3 mm, tail length of 6.7 mm), with 1 mm distance between the eyes, and 2 mm maximum tail height. At this early developmental stage, tooth rows are not obvious and the oral disk is difficult to describe adequately. The white spot characteristic of other Gracixalus tadpoles is not present at stage 24 (Rowley et al. 2011).
Distribution and Habitat
G. quangi has been found in evergreen forests, in the Ca and Chu river catchments, located in the Pu Hoat Proposed Nature Reserve, Nghe An Province, Vietnam. It is likely to be found in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve in Thanh Hoa Province, in Huaphan Province in Laos, and Pu Huong Nature Reserve in Nghe An Province. It has been found between the elevations of 600 m and 1,300 m (Rowley et al. 2011).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Like other closely related members of Gracixalus, G. quangi deposits clutches of 7-18 eggs on leaves over shallow pools/puddles. The eggs are cream colored and encased in a gelatinous capsule (Rowley et al. 2011).
Male advertising calls within G. quangi are highly variable and non-stereotypical. The calls range in whistles (long duration, high frequency) to clicks (short duration, varied frequency). Call components and structure vary significantly both within the calling bout of an individual and between different individuals. The calls have a dominant frequency ranging from 4.1 - 4.7 kHz, and harmonics at 8.1 - 9.6 kHz, 12.0 - 14.1 kHz, and 16.1 - 18.8 kHz. The structures of the calls do not seem to have a fixed or predictable pattern (Rowley et al. 2011).
The species authorities are Jodi J. L. Rowley, Vinh Quang Dau, Tao Thien Nguyen, Trung Tien Cao, and Sang Van Nguyen.
G. quangi is named in honor of Quang Xuan Hoang, a herpetologist from Vinh University (Rowley et al. 2011).
Within Gracixalus, G. quangi is most closely related to G. supercornutus, followed by G. gracilipes, and then G. quyeti. All four of these species are small (male snout-vent length below 30 mm) and have a greenish dorsum (Rowley et al. 2011).
Rowley J.J.L., Dau V.Q., Nguyen T.T., Cao T.T., Nguyen S.V. (2011). ''A new species of Gracixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) with a hyperextended vocal repertoire from Vietnam.'' Zootaxa, (3125), 22-38.
Written by John Cavagnaro (john.cavagnaro AT berkeley.edu), University of California Berkeley
First submitted 2012-03-13
Edited by Mingna (Vicky) Zhuang (2013-11-30)
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