© 2009 Hussain Aga Khan (1 of 17)
Tadpoles are long and slender with large, funnel-shaped ventral mouthparts. At stage 34, the tadpole has a total length of 42.7 mm, with the body being 12.4 mm and the tail 30.3 mm. The body is ovoid and depressed, as well as long and slender, with a robust tail musculature, low fins and rounded tail tip. The dorsal fin does not extend onto the body. The snout is rounded when viewed from above and acuminate in profile. Eyes are somewhat small, directed dorsolaterally, and are widely spaced. Nostrils are dorsolateral and are slightly closer to the eyes than to the tip of the snout. The mouth is large and funnel-shaped, directed ventrally, bordered with rows of tiny papillae and also with large conical papillae. Beaks are slender with the lower beak being V-shaped. Tadpoles have denticles 2/2, with the first upper row shorter than the second. First lower row is in the form of an inverted V and reduced, with a broad medial interruption. Second lower row of denticles is quite short. The spiracle is sinistral while the vent is dextral. The coloration of the tadpole in life is a pale yellowish olive green, with iridescent pale green spotting on the dorsum and tail. Iris is bright red.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Guatemala, Honduras
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Tadpoles are found in quiet pools within mountain streams (Wilson and McCranie 1985). Tadpoles were found schooling from May to August (the same time at which adults were seen), sometimes swimming upside down at the surface of pools with oral discs expanded and sometimes resting on rocks at the bottom of the stream (McCranie and Wilson 2002). Near Tegucigalpita, Cortés, other tadpoles found syntopically with D. soralia in a small stream included those of Plectrohyla guatemalensis, Plectrohyla matudai, Ptychohyla hypomykter, and Rana maculata (McCranie and Wilson 2002). In a stream at the Quebrada Cañon Oscuro, below the village of Quebrada Grande, only D. soralia tadpoles were found (Wilson and McCranie 1985). Within Parque Nacional El Cusuco, tadpoles of Duellmanhohyla soralia, Plectrohyla dasypus, Rana maculata, and Ptychohyla hypomykter were sympatric at most study sites (Kolby et al. 2009).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Kolby, J. E., Padgett-Flohr, G. E., and Field, R. (2009). ''Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.'' Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Special Edition 4, preprint 3. Published online May 6, 2009.
McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Townsend, J. H., Wilson, L. D., Talley, B. L., Fraser, D. C., Plenderleith, T. L., and Hughes, S. M. (2006). ''Additions to the herpetofauna of Parque Nacional El Cusuco, Honduras.'' Herpetological Bulletin, 96, 30-39.
Wilson, L. D., and McCranie, J. R. (1985). ''A new species of red-eyed Hyla of the uranochroa group (Anura: Hylidae) from the Sierra de Omoa of Honduras.'' Herpetologica, 41, 133-140.
Written by Kellie Whittaker (kwhittaker AT berkeley.edu), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2009-11-30
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2009-11-30)
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