This species is known only from the Reserva Biológica de Una and nearby surrounding areas in the municipality of Una, in Bahia State in north-eastern Brazil.
Habitat and Ecology
It is most common in primary forest with tall trees (up to 40m high), with abundant palms and deep leaf-litter. It is less common in secondary forest, and is present but very uncommon in shaded cacao plantations, locally known as "cabrucas". These are cacao groves in which large emergent trees have been preserved to shade the understory cacao. In these cabrucas, leaf-litter is abundant although formed predominantly of cacao leaves. It is not known if this species can persist in these cabrucas, or even in secondary forest. This species is presumed to be a larval developer, using temporary pools.
It appears to be fairly common within suitable habitat.
It may be threatened by the conversion of most of the forest surrounding the Reserva Biológica de Una to cacao plantations and other crops, and the clearance of most of the rest of it for cattle ranching. Only a few fragments of primary forest now remain.
Most of the known current range of this species is within the Reserva Biológica de Una, where ongoing conservation efforts around the reserve aim to re-establish connectivity through linking of remaining forest patches and promotion of shade cacao as preferable to cattle ranching. These conservation activities are likely to benefit this species. The cabrucas around the reserve have a higher degree of disturbance and lower floristic diversity than primary forests, but they do at least provide some shelter and humidity for this species. Further investigation is needed to assess whether or not this species can persist in cabrucas, or even in secondary forest.
Simon Stuart 2006. Chiasmocleis gnoma. In: IUCN 2014