Species Description: Rovito SM, Vasquez-Almazan CR, Papenfuss TJ 2010 A new species of Bolitoglossa from the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala. J Herptol 44:516-525.
© 2011 Sean Michael Rovito (1 of 6)
Resembles the sympatric B. helmrichi closely in external appearance, but B. zacapensis has a uniform pale tan color on the underside of the tail and lacks any mottling on the ventral side, whereas the subcaudal surface is orange or pink in B. helmrichi with mottling on the venter, gular region, and underside of limbs. Bolitoglossa zacapensis has less interdigital webbing compared with B. helmrichi: sinuosity = 1.90 + 0.11 [mean + SD, N = 10] vs. mean 1.80 + 0.07, N = 14 for B. helmrichi (Jaekel 2002; Jaekel and Wake 2007). Compared with B. helmrichi, B. zacapensis has a relatively longer tail (males: TL/ SVL 0.696–1.032, mean 0.909, N = 12 for B. zacapensis vs. 0.504–1.089, mean 0.814, N = 25 for B. helmrichi; t = 2.344, P = 0.030; females: 0.701–1.012, mean 0.887, N = 10 for B. zacapensis vs. 0.652–0.972, mean 0.781, N = 20 for B. helmrichi; t = 2.820, P = 0.015), and relatively shorter (significantly shorter for males) fore and hind limbs (males: FLL/SVL 0.254–0.286, mean 0.267, N = 12 for B. zacapensis vs. 0.246– 0.322, mean 0.282, N = 25 for B. helmrichi; t = 3.466, P = 0.002; HLL/SVL 0.247–0.289, mean 0.270, N = 12 for B. zacapensis vs. 0.267–0.339, mean 0.296, N = 25 for B. helmrichi; t = 4.644, P = 0.0001; females: FLL/SVL 0.238–0.279, mean 0.258, N = 13 for B. zacapensis vs. 0.245–0.286, mean 0.265, N = 21 for B. helmrichi; t = 1.736, P = 0.095; HLL/SVL 0.540–0.296, mean 0.273, N = 13 for B. zacapensis vs. 0.257–0.306, mean 0.282, N = 21 for B. helmrichi; t = 1.695, P = 0.106).
Description: A moderately sized species of Bolitoglossa. Head moderately broad; snout truncate; eyes weakly protuberant, barely visible when viewed from below; relatively shallow postorbital groove extends posteriorly from eye to the posterior end of the mandible, where it proceeds sharply ventrally and continues weakly across the gular region. Maxillary teeth abundant, premaxillary teeth anterior to line of maxillary teeth, do not pierce lip. Premaxillary teeth more numerous in females than in males. Moderate number of vomerine teeth extending in an irregular row just past outer edge of internal nares. Oval mental gland present in males. Labial protuberances moderately well developed. Tail somewhat rectangular at base, becoming more round towards tip; weakly constricted at base; tail relatively long, approximately same length as body. Limbs slender and relatively short; adpressed limbs separated by approximately two costal grooves. Webbing reduced with two phalanges of Digit III free of webbing on both hands and feet. Digit tips bluntly rounded with distinct subterminal pads; digits in order of increasing length I-II-IVIII on hands and I-II-V-IV-III on feet. Phalangeal formulae 1-2-3-2 for hand and 1-2-3-3-2 for foot. Brown in color; some individuals with thin yellowish lines running from head to hind limbs.
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Etymology: Named for the Departmento de Zacapa, Guatemala, in which it was discovered and likely is restricted to. The authors of the original description suggest "Zacapa Salamander" as its English common name.
Elias, P. (1984). ''Salamanders of the northwestern highlands of Guatemala.'' Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 348, 1-20.
Greenbaum, E. (2004). ''A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae) from montane forests in Guatemala and El Salvador.'' Journal of Herpetology, 38, 411-421.
McCranie, J. R., and Koehler, G. (1999). ''A new species of salamander of the Bolitoglossa dunni group from Cerro El Pital, Honduras and El Salvador (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae).'' Senckenbergiana Biologica, 78, 225-229.
McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (1993). ''A review of the Bolitoglossa dunni group (Amphibia: Caudata) from Honduras with the description of three new species.'' Herpetologica, 49, 1-15.
Parra-Olea, G., García-París, M., and Wake, D. B. (2004). ''Molecular diversification of salamanders of the tropical American genus Bolitoglossa (Caudata: Plethodontidae) and its evolutionary and biogeographical implications.'' Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 81, 325-346.
Rovito, S. M., Vásquez-Almazán, C. R., and Papenfuss, T. J. (2010). ''A new species of Bolitoglossa (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala.'' Journal of Herpetology, 44, 516-525.
Schmidt, K. P. (1936). ''Guatemalan salamanders of the genus Oedipus.'' Zoological Series, Field Museum of Natural History , 20, 135-166.
Stuart, L. C. (1943). ''Taxonomic and geographic comments on Guatemalan salamanders of the genus Oedipus.'' Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 56, 1-33.
Wake, D. B., and Brame, A. H. (1969). ''Systematics and evolution of neotropical salamanders of the Bolitoglossa helmrichi group.'' Contributions in Science (Los Angeles), 175, 1-40.
Wake, D. B., and Lynch, J. F. (1982). ''Evolutionary relationships among Central American salamanders of the Bolitoglossa franklini group, with a description of a new species from Guatemala.'' Herpetologica, 38, 257–272.
Written by Sean M. Rovito (smrovito AT gmail.com), Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Berkeley
First submitted 2011-01-21
Edited by Michelle S. Koo, Kellie Whittaker (2011-01-24)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2011 Bolitoglossa zacapensis: Zacapa Salamander <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/7598> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Aug 23, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 23 Aug 2017.
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