Tico Salamander, salamandra tica
Species Description: Garcia-Paris M, Parra-Olea B, Wake DB 2008 Description of a new species of the Bolitoglossa subpalamata group (Caudata: Plethodontidae)from Costa Rica. Herp. J. 18:23-31.
This species has a flat reddish brown to nearly black dorsal coloration, with a darker tail. Two poorly defined reddish brown stripes may be present, running over each shoulder down to the mid-body, as well as a brownish red mid-dorsal stripe from shoulder to tail constriction. The venter is dark to shiny black, with a somewhat lighter throat that may have white speckling on the gular region. Speckles of bright white are concentrated around the pelvic area, near the cloaca, tail and pre-pelvic region. The tip of the snout and the region anterior to the eyes are pale tan. The iris is a bright gold-grey. One adult female specimen, from Cañon, had a broad red-brown mottled dorsal band, with red-brown, cream and black mottling of the face. The single juvenile specimen had a dark reddish brown dorsum with black streaks, nearly black flanks, brown-speckled venter with a few bright white spots, and cream-tipped nasolabial protuberances. (García-París et al. 2008).
In alcohol the holotype is dark grey-black dorsally with a narrow tan stripe that extends from the nape of the neck to the end of the body. The head and limbs are lighter than the body and appear dark grey-brown (García-París et al. 2008).
Bolitoglossa tica is distinguished from other members of the B. subpalmata clade by mtDNA and allozyme differences, and by its particularly well-defined head. In addition, it is distinguished from B. subpalmata by having fewer maxillary teeth, more vomerine teeth, and smaller hands and feet (García-París et al. 2008).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Costa Rica
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
This species is almost certainly a direct developer, lacking a larval stage, as are the other members of the genus Bolitoglossa (García-París et al. 2000).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Brame, A. H., Jr. and Wake, D. B. (1972). ''New species of salamanders (genus Bolitoglossa) from Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama.'' Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 219, 1-34.
García-París, M., Good, D. A., Parra-Olea, G., and Wake, D.B. (2000). ''Biodiversity of Costa Rican salamanders: implications of high levels of genetic differentiation and phylogeographic structure for species formation.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 1640-1647.
García-París, M., Parra-Olea, G., and Wake, D.B. (2008). ''Description of a new species of the Bolitoglossa subpalmata group (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from Costa Rica.'' Herpetological Journal, 18, 23-31.
IUCN (2008). 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 7 February 2009.
Parra-Olea, G., García-París, M., Hanken, J., and Wake, D.B. (2004). ''A new species of arboreal salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Pseudoeurycea) from the mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico.'' Journal of Natural History, 38, 2119-2131.
Written by Henry Zhu (babydragon AT berkeley.edu), UC Berkeley Museum of Vertebrate Zoology
First submitted 2008-09-26
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2009-02-07)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2009 Bolitoglossa tica: Tico Salamander <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/7149> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 27, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 27 Mar 2017.
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