Species Description: Rueda-Almonacid, Rada, Sanchez-Pacheco, Velasquez-æªŽlvarez & Quevedo 2006 Two new and exceptional poison dart frogs of the genus Dendrobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from the northeastern flank of the Cordillera Central of Colombia. Zootaxa 1259: 39-54
Description: Andinobates daleswansoni is a small frog with a snout vent length ranging from 17.83-18.46 mm in males and 19.01-19.74 mm in females. The head is much narrower than the body. The snout is rounded when viewed from above and truncated when viewed from the side, with a rounded canthus rostralis and a flattened, vertical loreal region. D. daleswansoni does not have postrictal tubercles. It also lacks vomerine, maxillary, and premaxillary teeth. The length of the tongue is almost twice the width. Eyes are large and prominent with horizontally elliptical pupils. The oval-shaped tympanum and tympanal ring are obscured in the posterodorsal region, and there is no supratympanic fold. D. daleswansoni has relatively large hands with moderately expanded discs on the digits, except the pollex. Paired dorsal pads are present on the discs. Relative order of fingers is III>IV>II>I. The hind limbs are relatively short, with discs on the toes smaller than those on the fingers. The outer metatarsal tubercle is tubercle is elongated and protuberant, and is slightly larger than the inner metatarsal tubercle. Skin is smooth on the back and granular on the flank and belly. A few small warts are present in the sacro-coccigeal region and on the hind limbs. Males can be distinguished from females by the following characteristics: a thinner body, more granulated skin on ventral surfaces and thighs, a longer hand, the presence of vocal slits, and a single subgular vocal sac (Rueda-Almonacid et al. 2006).
In life, a bright red cephalic hood extends to the axilla, covering the suprascapular region and back of the arms. The rest of the body is brown, with sepia color and cinnamon infusions on the ventral surfaces, especially on the chin and throat. One or several yellow-orange dots may be present on the posterior surface of the trunk and thighs. The iris is black. In preservative, back and belly turn sepia or dark brown, and yellow-orange spots become gray (Rueda-Almonacid et al. 2006).
It can be distinguished from A. opisthomelas, with which it is sympatric up to 1800 m asl, by coloration: A. opisthomelas is reddish orange without patterning (Rueda-Almonacid et al. 2006).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
A. daleswansoni is sympatric with A. opisthomelas up to around 1,800 m asl (Rueda-Almonacid et al. 2006). The two species can be easily distinguished by coloration.
Trends and Threats
It is protected under CITES Appendix II, with the 1987 CITES coverage of dendrobatids extended to include this species, which was described in 2006.
Relation to Humans
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
This species is one of only two dendrobatids to have four toes on the foot due to the fusion of the first toe with the second. In A. daleswansoni the two toes are totally fused, while in A. dorisswansonae the two toes are partially or totally fused. The unique toe morphology could lead to the creation of a new genus in the future (Rueda-Almonacid et al. 2006). In 2011, the genus Dendrobates was subdivided into seven genera, including Andinobates by Brown et al (2011).
Rueda-Almonacid, J. V., Rada, M., Sánchez-Pacheco, S. J., Velásquez-Álvarez, A. A., and Quevedo-Gil, A. (2006). ''Two new and exceptional poison dart frogs of the genus Dendrobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from the northeastern flank of the Cordillera Central of Colombia.'' Zootaxa, 1259, 39-54.
Brown J.L., Twomey E., Amézquita A., De Souza M.B., Caldwell J.P., Lötters S., Von May R., Melo-Sampaio P.R., Mejía-Vargas D., Perez-Peña P., Pepper M., Poelman E.H., Sanchez-Rodriguez M., and Summers K. (2011). ''A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae).'' Zootaxa, 3083, 1-120.
Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Written by Monique Picon (mopicon AT gmail.com), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2010-09-23
Edited by Kellie Whittaker, taxonomy updated by Michelle S. Koo (2012-01-26)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2012 Andinobates daleswansoni <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/6773> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Apr 26, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 26 Apr 2017.
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