One-toed Amphiuma, Conger Eel, Congo Eel, Congo Snake, Lamprey Eel, Ditch Eel, Fish Eel
© 2016 Dr. Joachim Nerz (1 of 8)
The three species of Amphiuma are similar but can be differentiated based on the number of toes (one, two, or three), coloration, and body size.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: United States
U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Diet consists of mud-dwelling invertebrates, including earthworms, sphaeriid clams, arthropod larvae, and beetles. Possible predators include racoons, feral pigs, mud snakes (Farancia), snapping turtles, and two-toed amphiumas. Although they tend to keep to the thick bottom-layer of muck, one-toed amphiumas must come to the surface to breathe. During dry periods and droughts, one-toed amphiumas will stay in burrows at least 12 inches underground (Means 1992).
Trends and Threats
Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Karlin, A. A., and Means, D. B. (1994). ''Genetic variation in the aquatic salamander genus Amphiuma.'' American Midland Naturalist, 132, 1-9.
Means, D. B. (1992). "One-toed Amphiuma." Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida. Volume 3. Amphibians and Reptiles. Moler, P. E., eds., University Press of Florida, Gainsville, FL., 34-38.
Moler, P. E. (ed.) (1992). Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida. Volume 3. Amphibians and Reptiles. University Press of Florida
Neill, W. T. (1964). "A new species of salamander, Genus Amphiuma, from Florida." Herpetologica, 20, 62-66.
Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
Written by Meredith J. Mahoney (molge AT yahoo.com), Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Berkeley
First submitted 2000-07-20
Edited by M. J. Mahoney (2001-04-23)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2001 Amphiuma pholeter: One-toed Amphiuma <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/3854> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 24, 2016.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 24 Oct 2016.
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