Ambystoma mabeei Bishop, 1928
Joseph C. Mitchell
1. Historical versus Current Distribution. The historical distribution of
Mabee's salamanders (Ambystoma mabeei) is unknown. Mabee's
salamanders occur entirely in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and extend from Gloucester
County, Virginia, to the southern tip of South Carolina (Mosimann and Rabb, 1948;
Mitchell and Hedges, 1980; Ensley and Cross, 1984; Petranka, 1998; Mitchell and Reay,
1999). There are no records west of the Fall Line.
2. Historical versus Current Abundance. There are no published estimates of
population size for Mabee's salamanders. Maximum number of larval salamanders caught
in 1963 with a minnow seine in four ponds in North Carolina was 51, 97, 115, and 212
(Hardy, 1969b). Roble (1998) reported that Mabee's salamanders were confirmed in 17
of 50 natural sinkhole ponds in the Grafton Plains area in the city of Newport News and
York County, Virginia. Up to 100 larvae were caught on single visits to three of
these ponds. A total of 183 individuals was caught in 1995–'97, compared to
821 marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) encountered during that
period, suggesting that the best known population of Mabee's salamanders in Virginia
exists in low densities (Roble, 1998).
3. Life History Features. The life history and biology of Mabee's salamanders
have been summarized by Pague and Mitchell (1991a) and Petranka (1998). Mabee's
salamanders possess an aquatic larval stage and terrestrial juvenile and adult
Reproduction is aquatic.
i. Breeding migrations. During rains, adults migrate en masse from terrestrial
retreats to breeding ponds during the winter (Hardy, 1969a). Movement distances are
unknown. Hardy (1969b) found 91 recently transformed Mabee's salamanders under
boards approximately 800 meters from the nearest water. Roble (1998), however,
found no mass migrations in Virginia using drift fences and pitfall traps.
ii. Breeding habitat. Mabee's salamanders breed in small, shallow, typically
ephemeral to semi-permanent wetlands that are usually free of fishes (Petranka,
1998). A wide variety of pools support breeding populations, including farm ponds,
water-filled foxholes, vernal pools in pine and hardwoods, Carolina bays, sinkhole
ponds, and cypress-tupelo ponds in pinewoods (Hardy, 1969a; Hardy and Anderson, 1970;
i. Egg deposition sites. Mating and egg laying occur in winter, extending from
December–March depending on weather conditions. Courtship occurs during winter
rains. Eggs vary from 5.1–5.9 mm in diameter and are deposited singly or in
loosely connected clusters of 2–6 eggs (Hardy, 1969a). Eggs are attached to
vegetation on the pond substrate.
ii. Clutch size. Undescribed. Hatching occurs in 9–14 d at about 9 mm
TL. Metamorphosis occurs in April–May depending on when eggs were
Larvae/Metamorphosis. The larval stage lasts a few months (Petranka, 1998).
Size at metamorphosis in North Carolina was estimated at 55–60 mm total length
(Hardy, 1969b). Metamorphic animals with gill buds from Virginia were
60.1–78.6 mm total length (mean = 70.4; Mitchell and Hedges, 1980).
Habitat. Juvenile habitat appears to be similar to adult habitat, but this aspect
of the ecology of Mabee's salamanders has not been studied. Hardy (1969b) noted
that a large number of recently transformed juveniles were found under coverboards in an
overgrown tree-shaded lawn adjacent to an open field.
Habitat. Adults use terrestrial habitats extensively outside of the breeding
period. Terrestrial habitat includes open fields, pine forest, and hardwood forest
F. Home Range
Size. Unknown. Movements of adults have not been studied but observations by
Hardy (1969b) suggest that some individuals remain close to breeding ponds during the
remainder of the year.
Territoriality has not been described in Mabee's salamanders.
Aestivation/Avoiding Dessication. Adults and juveniles are fossorial during the
non-breeding months. We do not know if individuals are active year-round
underground or if they aestivate during dry periods. Adults have been found under
logs in the bottom of breeding ponds during a late August to November drought (Hardy,
Migrations. Recently metamorphosed juveniles migrate from natal ponds and are known
to disperse ≤ 0.8 kilometers (Hardy, 1969b).
(Hibernation). Because Mabee's salamanders breed in the winter, they are unlikely
to exhibit winter torpor.
Associations/Exclusions. In aquatic habitats, Mabee's salamanders have been found
in association with tiger salamanders (A. tigrinum), marbled
salamanders, mole salamanders (A. talpoideum), lesser sirens
(Siren intermedia), southern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea
cirrigera), dwarf salamanders (Eurycea quadridigitata), and
eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens; Hardy, 1969a; Roble,
1998). As many as ten species of frogs and one fish, eastern mudminnows
(Umbra pygaea), have been found in ponds containing Mabee's salamanders
L. Age/Size at
Reproductive Maturity. Age at maturity is unknown for either sex. The
smallest male known from Virginia was 55 mm SVL, the smallest female was 53 mm SVL
Snider and Bowler (1992) reported a longevity record for a captive individual of unknown
sex as 8 yr, 9 mo, 23 d. Longevity in nature is unknown.
Behavior. Larval Mabee's salamanders feed on zooplankton and other small
invertebrates (Petranka, 1998). Hardy (1969b) noted that adults caught on land in
March–April had eaten earthworms.
Known predators are tiger salamander larvae and lesser sirens (Hardy, 1969b).
Petranka (1998) added odonate naiads and dytiscid beetle larvae.
Mechanisms. Mabee's salamanders possess passive antipredator displays that include
lashing the tail weakly toward a touch, coiling the body with the head under the base of
the tail, tail undulation, and, when touched, assuming an immobile position with the
forelimbs clasped along the body (Brodie, 1977). Individual salamanders exhibited
these display behaviors for 8.5–87 s (mean = 40.5 s) when approached by a small
snake (Dodd, 1977b).
Q. Diseases. No
diseases have been reported.
Parasites have not been reported.
4. Conservation. Mabee's salamanders are listed as a Threatened species in
Virginia (Mitchell and Reay, 1999). Threats include habitat fragmentation, aquatic
and terrestrial habitat loss, road mortality, and alteration of hydrology mostly due to
urbanization. One Mabee's salamander site, a 151 ha portion of the Grafton area
sinkhole pond complex in the city of Newport News, was dedicated in 1995 as a Virginia
Department of Conservation and Recreation Natural Area Preserve (Clark, 1998).
Literature references for Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, edited by Michael Lannoo, are here.
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