Species Description: Barrio-Amoros, C. L., and Brewer-Carias, C. 2008. ''Herpetological results of the 2002 expedition to Sarisarinama, a tepui in Venezuelan Guayana, with the description of five new species.''Zootaxa, 1942, 1-68.
© 2010 Pedro L. V. Peloso (1 of 1)
Similar species: Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense can be distinguished from other Venezuelan Guayanan species of Hyalinobatrachium (H. fleischmanni, H. ignioculus), except for H. taylori, by having pale green bones in life (which become white bones in preservative). H. iaspidiense can be distinguished from H. taylori by the following combination of characters: snout truncate in profile (vs. sloping in profile for H. taylori); Finger I longer than Finger II (vs. Finger I = Finger II in H. taylori); lacks fringe between Fingers II-III (fringe present between Fingers II-III in H. taylori); coloration in life pale green with large lime-green spots and small irregular black flecks (vs. dark green with small white spots for H. taylori); coloration in preservative whitish with large white spots and small black flecks (vs. yellowish with numerous purple chromatophores in H. taylori); calls consist of 1-2 notes (vs. 5-7 notes for H. taylori) (Barrio-Amorós and Brewer-Carias 2008).
Description: Adult male (specimen originally described as H. mesai) measures 20 mm in SVL. Small body with head wider than body. Short snout (truncate in profile and rounded in dorsal view) with indistinct canthus rostralis and a sloping loreal region. Nares protrude and the internarial region is slightly concave. Eyes are large. Tympanum is indistinct and the supratympanic fold is absent. The parietal peritoneum and the pericardium are transparent, while the hepatic and visceral peritonea are white. Vomerine teeth are absent. Tongue is round, has a posterior notch, and is barely free. Lacks ulnar and tarsal folds. Forearms broader than upper arms. Finger lengths are III>IV>I>II. No bulla. Webbing is absent between inner fingers but present between outer fingers. Finger discs are oval and wider than the adjacent phalanx. Humeral spines lacking. Hind limbs are slender. Toes are about 3/4-webbed. Toe discs are round to truncate and smaller than finger discs. Inner metatarsal tubercle is low and elliptical. Outer metatarsal tubercle is small and round. Smooth dorsal surfaces, areolate venter. Cloacal opening hidden by short anal flap. Cloacal ornamentation includes low folds and whitish tubercles. Males have vocal slits and a distensible subgular vocal sac but nuptial excrescences have not been seen (Barrio-Amorós and Brewer-Carias 2008).
In life, the skin is pale green. The head, dorsum, forearms and legs have large bright lime green blotches and much smaller irregular black spots, as well as black melanophores. White ulnar and tarsal stripes, but no folds. White iris with black melanophores. Bones are pale green in life (Barrio-Amoros and Brewer-Carias 2008).
In preservative, the dorsum is cream-colored with large white spots and small black flecks. Ventral surfaces whitish and opaque, with internal organs not easily seen. Iris dirty white with black melanophores. Bones are white in preservative (Barrio-Amoros and Brewer-Carias 2008).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
A male (originally described as H. mesai) was found calling on the upper surface of a Heliconia leaf, about 2 m above ground and 2 m from a small stream in the forest, on Sarisarinama-tepui in Venezuela. Males were also heard calling from higher trees and bushes and away from the stream. Calls were high-pitched and were usually a single note (duration 0.17 sec), but some were two notes, with a call interval of 9.3 sec. Dominant frequency was 4700 Hz and the fundamental frequency was 4300 Hz (Barrio-Amorós and Brewer-Carias 2008).
In Peru, an individual was collected from about 1.2 m above ground, perching in the leaves of a shrub about 50 m away from a small lagoon in the forest (Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2009).
Eggs are laid on the underside of leaves overhanging running water; when the eggs hatch, the larvae fall into the stream (La Marca and Señaris 2004).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Species authority: Ayarzagüena 1992.
H. mesai (from Sarisarinama-tepui in Venezuela; Barrio-Amorós and Brewer-Carias 2008) was recently synonymized with H. iaspidiense by Yánez-Muñoz et al. (2009); synonymy was also suggested by Guayasamin and North (2009). In addition, H. nouraguense (also referred to as H. nouraguensis in Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid 2007) was synonymized with H. iaspidiense recently, by Yánez-Muñoz et al. (2009); synonymy had been previously suggested by Ernst et al. (2005), Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid (2007) and Guayasamin et al. (2008).
Ayarzagüena, J. (1992). ''Los Centrolénidos de la Guayana Venezolana.'' Publicaciones de la Asociacién Amigos de Donana, 1, 1-48.
Barrio-Amoros, C. L., and Brewer-Carias, C. (2008). ''Herpetological results of the 2002 expedition to Sarisariñama, a tepui in Venezuelan Guayana, with the description of five new species.'' Zootaxa, 1942, 1-68.
Cisneros-Heredia, D. F., and McDiarmid, R. W. (2007). ''Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia: Anura: Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs.'' Zootaxa, 1572, 1-82.
Ernst, R., Rödel, M.-O. and Arjoon, D. (2005). ''On the cutting edge - The anuran fauna of the Mabura Hill Forest Reserve, Central Guyana.'' Salamandra, 41, 179-194.
Guayasamin, J. M., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Ayarzagüena, J., Trueb, L., and Vilà, C. (2008). ''Phylogenetic relationships of glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes .'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolutio, 48(2), 574-595.
Guayasamin, J. M., and North, S. (2009). ''Amphibia, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense: Distribution extension.'' Check List. Journal of Species Lists and Distribution, 5, 526-529.
Kok, P. J. R., and Castroviejo-Fisher, S. (2008). ''Glassfrogs (Anura: Centrolenidae) of Kaieteur National Park, Guyana, with notes on the distribution and taxonomy of some species of the family in the Guiana Shield.'' Zootaxa, 1680, 25–53..
Yánez-Muñoz, M. H., Pérez-Peña, P., and Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. (2009). ''New country records of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense (Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae) from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador and Peru.'' Herpetology Notes, 2, 49-52.
Written by Stephanie Ung and Kellie Whittaker (stephanieung AT berkeley.edu), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2010-05-26
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2011-12-28)
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