AMPHIBIAWEB
Arthroleptis xenodactylus
family: Arthroleptidae

© 2009 Luke Mahler (1 of 1)

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Tanzania, United Republic of

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
See IUCN account.
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Morphology

The following is the original description by Boulenger (1909) from Amani:

Tongue without conical papilla. Head moderate, as long as broad; snout rounded, as long as the eye, witlI obtuse canthi and nearly vertical nares; nostril equally distant from the eye and from the end of the snout; interorbital space much broader than the upper eyelid; tympanum perfectly distinct, half the diameter of tile eye. Fingers and toes moderate, dilated into small disks, which are produced into a short mucro, as in Sooglossus sechellensis, BÅ“ttg.; first finger shorter than second; toes with a slight rudiment of web; subarticular tubercles moderate; a small inner metatarsal tubercle; no tarsal tubercle. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches between the eye and the tip of the snout. Brown above; loreal region dark brown; lower parts white, finely speckled with brown.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

Males range from 13 to 17 mm in snout-vent length (Harper et al., 2010).

Holotype measures 17 mm from snout to vent (Boulenger, 1909).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Diagnostic Description

This is a very small leaf litter frog with a narrow wedge-shaped head and short legs. Dorsal pattern is variable among individuals, but often consists of a darker hourglass figure on a brown background, sometimes with dark sacral spots as well. In most individuals a dark band begins at the tip of the snout and passes under the eye to the tympanum. A small dark patch is usually present around the vent. The ventral surface is dark and evenly speckled with light mottling from the throat to the undersides of the legs. Digit tips are slightly expanded, with a distinct pointed papillate projection. The third finger of males is elongated and edged with small spines, which presumably aids in grasping the female during mating (Text from Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Comparisons

A. xenodactylus may be confused with A. xenodactyloides and A. stridens but can be distinguished by its distinctly papillate digit tips (Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

This species is found in leaf litter of lowland and montane forest at elevations from sea level to 2000 m. It is often found under logs and in banana leaves (Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

Males call from exposed sites among leaf litter. The call is a high-pitched chirp (Text from Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

Eggs are laid in moist soil or leaves and develop directly into frogs without passing through a free-swimming tadpole stage. Emerging frogs can be as small as 5 mm (Text from Harper et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/