AMPHIBIAWEB
Xenopus itombwensis
Itombe Massif Clawed Frog
family: Pipidae

  hear call (56.3K WAV file)

[call details here]

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Congo, the Democratic Republic of the

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Etymology

The new species is named after the plateau where it occurs – the Itombwe Massif of South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Evans et al., 2008).


Author: Bergmann, Travis
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

The extent of X. itombwensis distribution is unknown beyond the Itombwe Massif in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Evans et al., 2008).


Author: Bergmann, Travis
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

Evans et al. (2008) described the doral color of the holotype in preservative as a homogeneous dark brown, transitioning laterally on flanks to a cream-colored venter; dorsal surface of head dark brown; dorsal surface of limbs dark brown; underside of head speckled with gray; venter cream colored with sparse small brown spots on ventral surface of hind limbs; ventral surface of hind feet cream-colored. In life, two dorsal color patterns are evident; the difference between these patterns is more subtle in preserved than in live specimens. The first pattern, which is present in the holotype, is a uniform brown to dark brown coloration that is similar to X. wittei. The second pattern is a brown dorsal pattern with darker brown spots, sometimes with a dark dorsal band that is perpendicular to the body axis and situated caudal to the eyes but rostral with respect to the forearms.


Author: Bergmann, Travis
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

Females are larger than males; the average size of females 35.7 mm (N=2) and the average size of males, excluding the holotype that measured 31.8, was 30.2 (N=14; Evans et al. 2008).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Diagnostic Description

Xenopus itombwensis can be distinguished from other members of the of the vestitus-wittei subgroup by its unique but variable morphological coloration and smaller size and advertisement call. X. itombwensis individuals have a mottled pattern of brown spots that are slightly darker than the brown background (Evans et al., 2008).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Comparisons

This new species is the sister taxon of Xenopus wittei but differ substantially in morphology, male vocalization, and mitochondrial and autosomal DNA (Evans et al., 2008).


Author: Bergmann, Travis
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

These species was locally abundant in standing water associated with mineral extraction in a region that was surrounded by mature forest and also mixed use agricultural areas (Evans et al., 2008).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

The male advertisement call of X. itombwensis differs from the male advertisement calls of X. wittei and X. vestitus in that the call of the new species is much shorter (~600 milliseconds), and consists of two distinct components including a “fast trill” and a “slow trill” (Evans et al., 2008).


Author: Bergmann, Travis
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Evolution

X. itombwensis and X. wittei are probably sister species derived from the same allo-octoploid ancestor (Evans et al., 2008).


Author: Bergmann, Travis
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/