Japanese Common Toad, Nihon-hikigaeru, Azuma-hikigaeru
© 2007 Dr. Peter Janzen (1 of 4)
The snout-vent length ranges from 43-162 mm for B.j.formosus and 80-176 mm for B.j.japonicus. Females' body length is usually larger than males. Bufo japonicus living in warmer regions, on average, have greater snout-vent length.The tympanum is elliptical, and the eye-tympanum distance is about equal length to the long axis of tympanum. The fore-limb, with four fingers, is about half the length of the hind-limb; the third finger is the longest and the second is shortest. Hind-limb is nearly twice as long as the body; the fourth toe longest and the first toe shortest of all five toes. Webbing is poorly developed with deep incisions.
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Bufo japonicus feeds on a wide variety of arthropods and earthworms. According to Hirai's study (2000), diets of Bufo japonicus include ants, carotid and harpalid beetles, which are avoided by other predators because of the unpalatable chemical contents ( formic acid and quinones, respectively.) Hirai (2000) suggests that the wide variety of diet may reduced food-related competition with other species and contributed to the wide distribution of Bufo japonicus in Japan.
Bufo japonicus buries itself under soils to hibernate when the temperature falls below 6 degrees.
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Hirai, T., and Matui, M. (2002). ''Feeding ecology of Bufo japonicus formosus from the montane region of Kyoto, Japan.'' Journal of Herpetology, 36(4), 719-723.
Ishii, S., Kaji, S., and Nakazawa, H. (2000). ''Oscillatory electric potential on the olfactory epithelium observed during the breeding migration period in the Japanese toad, Bufo japonicus.'' Zoological Science, 17(3), 293-300.
Ishii, S., Kubokawa, K., Kikuchi, M., and Nishio, H. (1995). ''Orientation of the toad, Bufo japonicus, toward the breeding pond.'' Zoological Science, 12(4), 475-84.
Maeda, N. and Matsui, M. (1990). Frogs and Toads of Japan, 2nd edition. Bun-Ichi Sogo Shuppan Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
Okada, Y. (1966). Fauna Japonica Anura. Tokyo Electrical Engineering College Press, Tokyo.
Written by Asako Miyakawa (asako AT berkeley.edu), URAP
First submitted 2004-10-05
Edited by Tate Tunstall (2005-02-22)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2005 Bufo japonicus: Japanese Common Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/204> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Dec 7, 2016.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 7 Dec 2016.
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